Homs


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Homs

(hômz, hôms) or

Hims

(hĭms), city (1995 est. pop. 455,000), capital of Homs governorate, W central Syria, on the Orontes River. A commercial center located in a fertile plain where wheat, grapes, fruit, and vegetables are grown, Homs has historically produced such manufactures include refined petroleum, flour, fertilizer, processed foods, handicrafts, and silk, cotton, and woolen textiles, but the Syrian civil war in the 2010s destroyed much of the city's economy. Homs also is a road and rail junction and has an oil refinery. The city has a university.

In ancient times Homs, then called Emesa, was the site of a great temple to Baal (or Helios-Baal), the sungod. Emesa came into startling prominence in the early 3d cent. A.D. when a priest of the temple became Roman emperor as HeliogabalusHeliogabalus
or Elagabalus
, c.205–222, Roman emperor (218–22). He was a priest of the local sun god, Elagabalus, at Emesa and was named Varius Avitus Bassianus.
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, or Elagabalus. AurelianAurelian
(Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) , c.212–275, Roman emperor (270–75). Rising in the ranks, he became consul under Valerian. He succeeded Claudius II, whose victory over the Goths had begun the territorial rehabilitation of the empire.
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 defeated the forces of ZenobiaZenobia
, d. after 272, queen of Palmyra. She was of Arab stock and was the wife of Septimius Odenathus. He was murdered, probably through her contrivance, and she obtained rule of his lands in the name of her son.
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 of Palmyra there in 272.

In 636, Muslim Arabs took the town, which became known as Homs. The Arab general KhalidKhalid
(Khalid ibn al-Walid), d. 642, Arab warrior. He assisted the Meccans in attacking (625) Muhammad and the inhabitants of Medina after the battle of Badr. Khalid and the Meccans were victorious in the battle of Ohud but did not follow up their victory.
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 died there in 642; a shrine and mosque in his honor were erected in 1908. Homs was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 16th cent. until after World War I, when it became part of the French League of Nations mandate. In 2011, Homs was a center of protest against President Bashar al-AssadAssad, Bashar al-
, 1965–, Syrian political leader, son of Hafez al-Assad. A medical doctor, he left Syria (1992) for an ophthamology residency in London when his elder brother, Basil, his father's designated heir, was killed (1994) in an automobile accident.
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's rule, which elicited violent government suppression, and the city, including the mosque erected in Khalid's honor, was devastated by fighting during the subsequent civil war.

Homs

 

(also Hims), a city in western Syria, in the valley of the el-Asi River; administrative center of Hims Province. Population, 215,500 (1970). Horns, a railroad and highway junction, produces oil, mineral fertilizers, cement, textiles, and food products, including canned foods and dairy products. Petroleum pipelines from Iraq and the Karachuk oil fields in Syria pass through Horns on their way to the ports of Tartus and Baniyas. Petroleum products go by pipelines from Horns to Damascus, Aleppo, and Lata-kia. Fruits, grain, and animal products are also traded in Horns.

Homs

, Hums
a city in W Syria, near the Orontes River: important in Roman times as the capital of Phoenicia-Lebanesia. Pop.: 915 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The news come as the Syrian warplanes bombed ISIL positions in al-Quaryatayn city, al-Sukhna town and Rahoum village in Homs.
Government forces took full control of the heart of Homs on Thursday, after rebels in the Old City boarded buses and were transported to rebel-held territory to the north, the report said.
State TV said government forces would enter the evacuated neighborhoods once rebels leave entirely, although the rebels will retain one toe-hold in Homs.
Syrian army officers accompanied the rebel's buses, and the beginning of the evacuation was confirmed by Homs governor Talal Barazi.
Rebel-held central neighborhoods of Homs have been besieged by Syrian government forces for more than a year, causing widespread hunger
The Syrian government can now declare a victory of sorts by claiming control over two of the country's largest cities -- Homs and Damascus -- as well as the Mediterranean coast, Assad's ancestral heartland.
A city with a mixed Sunni Muslim, Alawite and Christian population, Homs was the scene of early protests against Assad in 2011 that, after he tried to crush them by force, spiralled into an armed insurgency.
The United Nations and Syria's Red Crescent began operations to evacuate trapped civilians and deliver aid inside besieged parts of Homs on February 7.
Opposition activists living in the Old City of Homs posted a letter on social media on Tuesday saying that unless the siege was fully broken, all other measures will be "superficial".
Le regime, ayant consolide sa victoire a Homs, controle toute la region qui va de Damas aux zones cotieres", affirme Karim Bitar, chercheur a l'Institut de relations internationales et strategiques (Iris).
The GCC General Secretariat stated that the obstinacy and its committing sectarian-ethnic cleansing on the part of the Syrian regime in Homs outskirts and its use of chemical warfare against the Syrian people are tantamount to war crimes and the Syrian regime is on the verge of committing an awful atrocity against Homs inhabitants.
Summary: Videos posted on the internet claim to show shelling and fighting in Homs as President Assad's forces carry out counter-offensives.