Hopi

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Hopi

(hō`pē), group of the PuebloPueblo,
name given by the Spanish to the sedentary Native Americans who lived in stone or adobe communal houses in what is now the SW United States. The term pueblo is also used for the villages occupied by the Pueblo.
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, formerly called Moki, or Moqui. They speak the Hopi language, which belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock, at all their pueblos except Hano, where the language belongs to the Tanoan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They occupy several mesa villages in NE Arizona and in 1990 numbered close to 12,000.

In 1540, they were visited by some of Francisco CoronadoCoronado, Francisco Vásquez de
, c.1510–1554, Spanish explorer. He went to Mexico with Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and in 1538 was made governor of Nueva Galicia.
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's men under Pedro de Tovar, but because of their geographical isolation they remained more independent of European influence than other Pueblo groups. The Spanish began to establish missions in 1629 at the Hopi pueblos of Awatobi, OraibiOraibi
, pueblo, N Ariz., on a mesa N of Winslow. It was built c.1150 and was discovered in 1540 by Pedro de Tovar, a lieutenant of Coronado. The mission of San Francisco, established on the site in 1629, was destroyed in the Pueblo revolt of 1680.
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, and Shongopovi. These missions were destroyed in the revolt of 1680 (see PopéPopé
, d. c.1690, medicine man of the Pueblo. In defiance of the Spanish conquerors, he practiced his traditional religion and preached the doctrine of independence from Spanish rule and the restoration of the old Pueblo life. In Aug.
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), and when the residents of Awatobi invited the missionaries to return, the other Hopi destroyed their village. After the revolt, pueblos in the foothills were abandoned and new villages were built on the mesas for defense against possible attack by the Spanish. The pueblo of Hano was built by the Tewa, who had fled from the area of the Rio Grande valley that the Spanish reconquered.

During the 18th and 19th cent., the Hopi were subjected to frequent raids by the neighboring NavajoNavajo
or Navaho
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Athabascan branch of the Nadene linguistic stock (see Native American languages). A migration from the North to the Southwest area is thought to have occurred in the past because of an affiliation
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. The region was pacified by the U.S. army in the late 19th cent., and a Hopi reservation was established in 1882, but the ambiguous status of much of the reservation enabled Navajo populations to encroach on traditional Hopi lands. By the 1960s and 70s, Navajo expansion on lands set aside for joint use provoked court action and led to a partition of the disputed land. Amid bitter conflict, over 10,000 Navajo and fewer than 100 Hopi were relocated from the partitioned lands. A court decision in 1992 assigned most of the land still in dispute to the Navajo. Some Navajo were permitted to remain on Hopi land under 75-year leases.

The Hopi are sedentary farmers, mainly dependent on corn, beans, and squash; they also raise wheat, cotton, and tobacco, and herd sheep. Each village is divided into clans and is governed by a chief, who is also the spiritual leader. Political and religious duties revolve around the clans. The Badger clan, for instance, still conducts the kachinakachina
, spirit of the invisible life forces of the Pueblo of North America. The kachinas, or kachinam, are impersonated by elaborately costumed masked male members of the tribes who visit Pueblo villages the first half of the year.
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 (fertility) ceremony, and the Antelope and Snake clans perform the well-known snake dance at Walpi and other pueblos. A Hopi tribal council and constitution were established in 1936, but internal dissension has limited tribal unity.

Bibliography

See J. Kammer, The Second Long Walk (1980); S. Rushforth and S. Upham, A Hopi Social History (1992).

Hopi

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Hopi, asteroid 2,938 (the 2,938th asteroid to be discovered, on June 14, 1980), is approximately 25.4 kilometers in diameter and has an orbital period of 5.6 years. Hopi was named after the Hopi tribe of North American Indians. Jacob Schwartz gives the astrological significance of this asteroid as “territorial disputes, minority experiences, Native Americans.” According to Martha Lang-Wescott, Hopi represents the awareness of oppression and prejudice. This asteroid also represents the principle of “ambush,” including psychological ambush. This asteroid’s key words are “prejudice” and “ambush.”

Sources:

Lang-Wescott, Martha. Asteroids-Mechanics: Ephemerides II. Conway, MA: Treehouse Mountain, 1990.
Lang-Wescott. Mechanics of the Future: Asteroids. Rev. ed. Conway, MA: Treehouse Mountain, 1991.
Schwartz, Jacob. Asteroid Name Encyclopedia. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1995.

Hopi

(dreams)

The Hopi, who live in the southwestern desert plateau of the United States, regard dreams as particularly important. Hopi society conveys much of its religious and recreational experience through a rich imagery derived from dramatic rituals that are frequently translated into dreams. These images are consistently presented to individuals throughout their lifetimes.

It is believed the soul of each person, corresponding to the Spirit of the Breath (hikwsi), can resist what the Hopi call the Mighty Something (himu), which is a composite concept of divinity. When the hikwsi resists the himu, the Hopi become confused. The Hopi then look for familiar anchors in their inner world, and this is expressed in dreams.

Dreams are viewed as an attempt by the self to make a statement about the individual’s present situation, as well as the extent of the person’s cultural integration. They are considered a type of thought-action in which hikwsi explores both the inner and the outer world through images provided by Hopi religion. Good dreams have to be held in the heart and can be told only after they have been fulfilled, whereas bad dreams—in that they contain bad thoughts—must be eliminated through the practice of reporting and discussing them, and by working out problems in them through confession of questionable behavior.

The Hopi believe that hikwsi is not confined within the mortal individual, but can be projected through thought, prayer, and dreams, and can interact with distant people and things. Also, the conceptual universe of the Hopi is not delimited by the notions of time and space, which make dreams an experience apart from reality.

Hopi dreams are characterized by a number of personally invented and culturally defined symbols that are applicable to personal situations at the time of the dream. For instance, when Palulukon, the Water Serpent, appears in a dream, it can represent both a possible punishing and a possible supportive agent, depending on whether the dream is charged with quiet or fear. The state of being at the time of the dream can determine the specific use of cultural or personal symbols, as well as the rules used to deal with and interpret the dream.