a genus of harmful fruit pests of the family Tenthredinidae (typical sawflies). The most destructive species are H. testudinea (6–7 mm long), H. brevis, H. minuta (4–5 mm long), and H. flava (4–6 mm long). The sawflies are distributed in Western Europe. They are encountered in the European USSR and in some regions of Siberia (H. testudinea). The insects have one generation per year. They usually hatch five to seven days before the flowering of fruit crops. They feed on nectar and pollen. The insects deposit their eggs singly in buds or flowers, sawing an opening with their ovipositor. The damage is done by the larvae, which, upon hatching, embed themselves in young fruits and eat the pulp. Damaged fruits fall, and the fruit harvest is sharply decreased. After finishing their feeding in early June, the larvae move to the soil for wintering. They pupate in the spring when the soil temperature is 10°–13°C.
Control measures include spraying apple, plum, and pear trees with insecticides. Apple and plum trees should be sprayed one or two days before flowering. Pear trees should be sprayed when isolation of the flower buds first occurs. The insecticide is often mixed with entobacterin. When necessary the treatment is repeated after flowering. In small orchards, the insects may be shaken from the trees in the morning in early summer.
REFERENCESkorikova, O. A. Pilil’shchiki, vrediashchie plodovoiagodnym kul’turam. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.
M. A. GONTARENKO