Although RIRS is a relatively common treatment method for kidney stones recently, there are not many publications about RIRS in horseshoe kidneys
The pelvic location is the most common, but horseshoe kidneys
, crossed (fused) ectopia and even intrathoracic kidneys have been described.
have anomalies related to position, orientation of the collecting system, and anomalies of the renal pelvis and ureteropelvic junction, which alters the surgical approach of urolithiasis.
Among these patients, 74% had either unilateral renal agenesis or ectopia of one or both kidneys, 5% had horseshoe kidneys
, 13% had abnormalities of the collecting system, 5% had malfunctioning kidneys of uncertain cause, and renal malrotation.
are frequently complicated by obstruction, infection and calculus formation, and have an increased risk of renal malignancy development, especially Wilms' tumour.
are the most common type of fusion anomaly and are present in 1:400 of the general population.
Carcinoid appear over-represented in horseshoe kidneys
compared with normal renal anatomy [3,4].
The posterior/anterior shockwave transmission allows the focal zone to penetrate deeper into the body, as is required when treating obese patients or horseshoe kidneys
Anomalous inferior vena cava associated with horseshoe kidneys
Sixteen years of experience with stone management in horseshoe kidneys
A horseshoe kidney
is considered a major contraindication owing to the anomalous and unpredictable location of internal renal structures and because horseshoe kidneys
often straddle the aorta.