The closed-cycle Stirling hot air engine was designed as a safe, economical and efficient alternative to steam.
When missionaries traveled to hot climates in undeveloped locations, a fan powered by a hot air engine helped provide relief from the heat.
Some hot air engine enthusiasts collect antique engines; others handcraft intricately detailed replica engines.
Threshing Days, Sept 8-9, 2012: The Atwater show serves as an unofficial regional gathering of hot air engine enthusiasts, including Wesley Bosch, who sets up an extensive display there, www.
Wesley's debut in hot air engines was an Essex engine that he bought from the estate of collector Harold Felt in 1985.
To accommodate hoteliers, the company manufactured fans bear-Watering the herd; Hot air engines found a ready audience in specialized applications - like pumping water in remote locations, as shown in this 1903 ad.
Hot air engines were the ideal power source for pumps because the engine did not need watching.