an artillery gun that combines the properties of two types of guns, the howitzer and the cannon. It is part of the troop artillery (called field artillery in foreign armies).
The howitzer cannon has a caliber of 90 mm and higher. The cannon has a barrel length of from 25 to 40 calibers and uses a multisectional charge; the initial shell velocity is 550-700 m/sec, the range of fire is from 15 to 20 km, and the rate of fire is from three to five rounds per minute. Most modern howitzer cannons are self-propelled; the old systems have mechanical traction. With the use of small charges a howitzer cannon can fire at an angle of elevation of up to 65° and can perform as a howitzer. With bigger charges a howitzer cannon has the capability of a cannon.
The first howitzer cannons were tested in Germany in 1915. After World War I (1914-18) they also appeared in armies of other countries (the Netherlands, France, the USA, the USSR); they were widely used in World War II (1939-45). In the Soviet army during the Great Patriotic War (1941-45), towed and self-propelled 152-mm howitzer cannons of the 1937 model were used. The further development of the howitzer cannon aims at creating a similar type of gun with a more powerful charge and a greater range of fire.
V. K. TRUSOV