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see artilleryartillery,
originally meant any large weaponry (including such ancient engines of war as catapults and battering rams) or war material, but later applied only to heavy firearms as opposed to small arms.
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a type of artillery gun for directing plunging fire at covered targets. Howitzers are part of troop artillery (field artillery in foreign armies). They have a caliber of 100 mm or more, a relatively short barrel (from 15 to 30 calibers), a multisection charge, a range of fire of up to 17 km, and a relatively high rate of fire—a round every other minute or every minute to six rounds per minute depending on the caliber. Most modern howitzers are self-propelled; the old systems use mechanical traction.

The first howitzers were built in Europe in the 15th century (Italy and Germany) and were used for firing stone-filled canisters. In the second half of the 16th century howitzers began firing explosive shells. In Russia the first howitzers were built in the middle of the 16th century. They were called gakovnitsy, gaufnitsy, and gafunitsy. In the 1760’s Russia developed longer howitzers, which were named unicorns. The change from smoothbore to rifled guns in the 1860’s led to the building of rifled howitzers. The greater use of field fortifications in the wars in the second half of the 19th century increased the need for howitzers. They were widely used in all armies in the two world wars. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) the highest performance indexes were displayed by the Soviet 122-, 152-, and 203-mm howitzers.


Kirillov-Gubetskoi, I. M. Sovremennaia artilleriia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1933.
Istoriia otechestvennoi artillerii, vol. 1, books 1-3; vol. 2, book 4; vol. 3, books 7-8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1959-66.



A complete projectile-firing weapon with a bore diameter greater than 30 millimeters, and a length shorter than a gun of the same caliber; maximum angle of velocity is about 65°; used to deliver curved fire with projectiles of lower muzzle velocities than those from the gun.
References in periodicals archive ?
Field howitzers come in two basic forms; towed and self-propelled.
The new M777 features significant weight reduction - 7,000 pounds - over the M198 howitzer currently used by both Marine Corps and Army light units.
The group brought with it 78th AAA Gun Battalion, with towed 90mm guns, and 9th Field Artillery Battalion, with towed 155mm howitzers.
Title contenders Coventry Howitzer were held to a draw at Coventry Potters Green.
Last October, 33 representatives from twelve countries descended upon Jumer's Castle Lodge in Bettendorf Iowa for the first FMS M109 howitzer users' conference.
Tapping the side of a 155 mm howitzer as its barrel was locked down, Capt.
19 /PRNewswire/ -- United Defense and Barnes & Reinecke have signed an agreement to market M-109 self-propelled howitzers internationally.
howitzers returning from operations in Afghanistan.
Defence ministry sources on 23 June 2014 said though no final decision has been taken, there was "no way" the American M-777 ultra-light howitzers could be purchased for more than Rs 30 crore apiece.
If you notice a Class III leak at the hydrostrut vent valve, stop trying to raise the howitzer immediately.
It is also seen that many howitzers and have also been deployed to prevent infringements to Turkish territories from Syrian side.
Poland is looking at truck-mounted and self-propelled howitzers, new multiple rocket launchers, and even self-propelled heavy mortars.