Hsüan-tsang

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Hsüan-tsang

(shüän-dzäng), 605?–664, Chinese Buddhist scholar and translator. He early entered monastic life and later traveled in China, teaching and studying. Between 629 and 645 he made a pilgrimage to India in search of authentic scriptures. He studied at TaxilaTaxila
, archaeological site of three successive cities, near Rawalpindi, Pakistan. There between the 7th cent. B.C. and the 7th cent. A.D. was a flourishing city, famous as an ancient seat of learning. It was occupied (326 B.C.
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 and NalandaNalanda
, Buddhist monastic center in what is now Baragaon, Bihar state, E central India. Often referred to as a university, Nalanda was, from the 4th to the 12 cent. A.D., the most renowned center of Buddhist learning in India.
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, the most celebrated center of Buddhist learning in India, and also visited Kashmir and the major Buddhist holy places. Pious, learned, and fluent in Sanskrit, he was honored by the Indian rulers whom he met, including the Emperor Harsha. After returning to China he translated the texts he had brought back with him and wrote his memoirs. His disciple K'uei-chi is known as the founder of the Fa-hsiang school of Buddhism, the Chinese branch of YogacaraYogacara
[Skt.,=yoga practice], philosophical school of Mahayana Buddhism, also known as the Vijnanavada or Consciousness School. The founders of this school in India were Maitreya (270–350), his disciple Asanga (c.
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.

Bibliography

See his Si-yu-ki; Buddhist Records of the Western World (2 vol., tr. 1884, repr. 1969); A. Waley, The Real Tripitaka (1952); T. Loatters, On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India (1961); K. Ch'en, Buddhism in China (1964); R. Bernstein, Ultimate Journey (2001).

References in periodicals archive ?
Kumarajiva along with Dharmaraksa and Hsuan-tsang is the master who stands out by his preeminence virtue and by spreading the subtle philosophical systems of Buddhism.
The process was begun by Dharmaraksa who was a Yueh-chih which found its full flowering in Kumarajiva and culmination in Hsuan-tsang.
Hsuan-Tsang, a seventh-century Buddhist, for example, maintains that "neither the real self nor the real dharma is possible" (Chan 375).
But neither Hsuan-Tsang nor other members of the "Consciousness-Only" school believe that the self is a complex of social roles and functions.
Hsuan-tsang, the famous seventh-century pilgrim, comes next.
Nagarjuna concocted medicines for longevity, through which he and the king lived for centuries until Nagarjuna was decapitated; Hsuan-tsang offers a version of the story of Nagarjuna's end mentioned above.
Once we come to T220(3), translated by Hsuan-tsang, however, there are signs of excessive elaboration.
The text with the most marked additions is T220(2), again translated by Hsuan-tsang.
After a short survey of recent Western and Japanese studies examining the historical background and context of the notion of authoritative tradition in China at that time, Barrett offers his own perspective focusing on the crisis of authority in Chinese Buddhism provoked by the new translations of the returned pilgrim Hsuan-tsang.
Hsuan-tsang had a similar problem with the huge Yogacarabhumi, so he said it was by Maitreya (the future Buddha)--by whom it was not; and this "worked.
Lamotte for his translation and commentary utilized the Tibetan translation and canonical commentaries, the four complete or partial Chinese translations and the Hsuan-tsang Chinese Vasubandhu commentary, and gave parallel passages in the Sanskrit editions of the Mahayanasutralamkara and the Bodhisattvabhumi.
In short, when they claim to be translating from Tibetan, they probably rely on the Chinese, namely, the Hsuan-tsang versions, to help in interpreting the Tibetan.