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Gestapo:see secret policesecret police,
policing organization operating in secrecy for the political purposes of its government, often with terroristic procedures. The Nature of a Secret Police
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(abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei), secret government police in fascist Germany. The Gestapo was created in April 1933 for the purpose of physically eliminating the political opponents of fascism. It was an instrument of bloody terror in Germany and beyond its borders. Hundreds of thousands of antifascists were killed and bestially tortured by the Gestapo in numerous concentration camps and torture chambers without trial or investigation. In June 1936, Himmler was appointed imperial director of the Gestapo, which had agents in businesses, institutions, organizations, and living quarters. There was even a special division for surveillance of members of the Nazi Party. Beyond Germany’s borders agents of the Gestapo conducted military-political espionage and committed murders and kidnappings of anti-fascist activists. During World War II organs of the Gestapo committed savage reprisals against the peaceful populations of occupied territories, foreign workers, and war prisoners. After the rout of fascist Germany, the Gestapo was abolished and outlawed by Law No. 2 of the Control Council of Germany in 1945. The international military tribunal in Nuremberg recognized the Gestapo as a criminal organization in 1946.
REFERENCESNiurnbergskii protsess nad glavnymi nemetskimi voennymi prestupnikami: Sb. materialov, vols. 1-7. Moscow, 1957-61.
Trainin, I. P. Mekhanizm nemetsko-fashistskoi diktatury. Tashkent, 1942.
Geiden, K. Istoriia germanskogo fashizma. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. (Translated from German.)
Winzer, O. 12 let bor’by protiv fashizma i voiny. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from German.)
Bartel, W. Deutschland in der Zeit der faschistischen Diktatur 1933-1945. Berlin, 1956.
V. D. KUL’BAKIN