Sullivan, a musicologist associated with the UCLA Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, considers the ancient origins of the association between speech and music and statements of structural similarity between them in ninth-century music handbooks and treatises--Aurelian of RA[c]A[acute accent]me's Musica disciplina, Hucbald
, Guido and John on Music (Yale University Press, 1978); Kenneth Levy, Gregorian Chant and the Carolingions (Princeton UP, 1998); James McKinnon, The Temple, the Church Fathers and Early Western Chant (Variorum, 1998); Rosamund McKitterick, Charlemagne: The Formation of a European Identity (Cambridge UP, 2008); Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 (Oxford U P, 2005).
John "Cotton;' De Musica, 16, in Hucbald
, Guido, and Iohn on Music: Three Medieval Treatises, trans.
Byzantine musicians did not attempt to harness the ancient system to their practical needs as Western theorists were to do from the time of Hucbald.
Hucbald, using the same form of tetrachord, contrived a scale corresponding to that of the ancient Greek diatonic system, though that was based on downward tetrachords of the form tone-tone-semitone and called for an extra note at the bottom, whereas Hucbald's required one at the top.
A few candidates have been proposed over the years, including Hucbald
(Gerbert, 1784), Otgarius (Morin, 1891), Hoger of Werden (Morin, 1895) and Otger of Laon (J.
Such a decomposition of the diatonic intervals is found in Hucbald, albeit in garbled form, and in later treatises such as the Contrapunctus of Prosdocimo de' Beldomandi.
Hucbald shows the decomposition of nine intervals from the minor second through major sixth as follows: "Thus whereas the first interval is adjacent to equality itself, which it succeeds in the order of musical intervals, it appears when doubled to produce the second interval.
13) At the hands of some of the ablest writers of the age - Alcuin, Einhard, Jonas, Hilduin, Hucbald
- the genre became marked by a striving for stylistic effect, historical complexity and theological depth.
73), that of the theory of the modes found in Hucbald
or in treatises such as Musica enchiriadis and Alia musica.
American Institute of Musicology, 1955]), on which the English translation by Warren Babb (in Hucbald
, Guide, and John on Music, ed.
Musica enchiriadis is one of the two most important works on music theory from the early middle ages; the other is by Hucbald
(De harmonica institutione).