Uman

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Uman

(o͞omän`), city (1989 pop. 91,000), central Ukraine, at the confluence of the Kamenka and Umanka rivers. It is a rail junction and has plants producing scientific instruments. Mentioned in 1659 as a strongpoint, Uman was the seat of the wealthy Potocki nobility until 1834. In the late 17th cent. it was an important fortress for protection against Crimean Tatar attacks on right-bank Ukraine. In 1768 the city was the scene of a Ukrainian peasant and Cossack uprising that resulted in a general massacre and that Taras Shevchenko later depicted in his poem "Haydamaki." Uman passed to Russia in 1793 during the second partition of Poland.

Uman’

 

a city under oblast jurisdiction and administrative center of Uman’ Raion, Cherkassy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. Situated at the confluence of the Kamenka and Umanka rivers, in the Iuzhnyi Bug River basin. Terminus of a railroad branchline on the Vapniarka-Cherkassy line; junction of highways to Kiev, Kirovograd, Cherkassy, Vinnitsa, and Odessa. Population, 77,600 (1975).

The first historical mention of Uman’ dates from 1616. The city was part of the Bracław Województwo of the Rzeczpospolita. From 1726 to 1832, Uman’ belonged to the Polish magnates of the Potocki family, and in 1793 it became part of the Russian Empire. It became a district center in 1795 and became part of Kiev Province in 1797. The Decembrist S. G. Volkonskii lived in Uman’ from 1819 to 1826, and he was often visited by P. I. Pestel’ and other members of the Southern Society of Decembrists. From 1838 to 1857, Uman’ was the center of the military settlements of Kiev and Podol’sk provinces. The city was linked by railroad with Kiev in 1890 and with Odessa in 1891.

Soviet power was established in Uman’ in February 1918, and the city was ultimately liberated from the White Guards in 1920. In 1930, Uman’ became a raion administrative center. In 1932 it was designated a city of Kiev Oblast, and since 1954 it has been a city of Cherkassy Oblast. From Aug. 1, 1941, to Mar. 10, 1944, Uman’ was occupied by fascist German forces. After the war, the city’s economy was rebuilt.

Uman’s chief industrial sectors are machine building and instrument-making; important enterprises include the Megommetr Plant, a plant for the production of optical equipment, a plant specializing in the manufacture of stage machinery, and the Uman’sel’mash Production Association. The city also has a poultry-packing combine, a cannery, a vodka distillery, and a vitamin factory. Enterprises of light industry include factories for the production of clothing, shoes, and art objects. Uman’ also has plants for the production of building and roofing materials, a brickyard, and a plant for the manufacture of reinforced-concrete products.

Uman’ is an important cultural center of Cherkassy Oblast. Its educational institutions include agricultural and pedagogical institutes, a technicum for training in the mechanization of agriculture, and pedagogical, medical, and music schools. The city has a museum of local lore. Uman’ has monuments to I. D. Cherniakhovskii (bronze and granite, 1948; sculptor E. V. Vuchetich, architect Ia. B. Belopol’skii), G. I. Kotovskii (bronze and granite, 1957; sculptors E. I. Belostotskii and E. M. Fridman), and M. I. Kalinin (bronze, 1963; sculptor V. E. Mil’ko).

The former Potocki estate in Uman’ is now the arboretum of Sofievka; the complex was built between 1796 and 1859 under the supervision of the architect A. N. Shtakenshneider, the engineer L. Mettsel’, and others. The park includes a water system with an upper and lower lake, a waterfall, and canals linked with the Kamenka River. The park has numerous pavillions, grottoes, and mazes, as well as sculpture, primarily in the classical style.

REFERENCES

Uman’. Cherkassy, 1957.
Uman’: Putivnyk. Dnepropetrovsk, 1968.
Khraban. G. E., and P. O. Zagranichnyi. Uman’: Putevoditel’-spravochnik. Dnepropetrovsk, 1975.
Kosarevskii, I. A. Sofievka: Kratkii putevoditel’, 5th ed. Kiev, 1965.