Human-Computer Interaction

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human-computer interaction

[¦yü·mən kəm¦pyüd·ər ‚in·tər′ak·shən]
(computer science)
The processes through which human users work with interactive computer systems.

Human-computer interaction

An interdisciplinary field focused on the interactions between human users and computer systems, including the user interface and the underlying processes which produce the interactions. The contributing disciplines include computer science, cognitive science, human factors, software engineering, management science, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Early research and development in human-computer interaction focused on issues directly related to the user interface. Some typical issues were the properties of various input and output devices, interface learnability for new users versus efficiency and extensibility for experienced users, and the appropriate combination of interaction components such as command languages, menus, and graphical user interfaces (GUI). Recently, the field of human-computer interaction has broadened and become more attentive to the processes and context for the user interface. The focus of research and development is now on understanding the relationships among users' goals and objectives, their personal capabilities, the social environment, and the designed artifacts with which they interact. As an applied field, human-computer interaction is also concerned with the development process used to create the interactive system and its value for the human user.

The interfaces and processes that make up human-computer interaction are understood and advanced through a variety of methods. At one level, this interaction can be characterized by the capabilities and processes of the human and the computer to accept input, process that input, and generate output. The computer capabilities include the hardware (input and output devices) such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, and Internet connection. These devices reflect contributions from computer science and engineering, whereas the human capabilities, both mental and physical, are understood through cognitive science and ergonomics. At another level, the interaction between the computer and the human consists of user interface software which governs the meanings of the inputs and outputs for the computer, as well as the corresponding rules and expectations that the user applies to generate meaningful actions. The user's internal model of the interaction is supported by visual cues in the interface and designed in accordance with principles of human factors. At a higher level, this interaction includes the context of goals, motivations, and other people and resources that determine what the person is doing. Understanding the process at this level requires insights from social and organizational sciences. See Human-factors engineering

Advances in computer science have significantly increased the processing power of computers while decreasing their size. These advances have provided the underlying technology for creating a wider variety of human-computer interactions. For example, streaming audio and video over the Internet, now common, would not be possible without the increased processing power and network connectivity of computers. These technological developments were influenced by the discovery of useful applications in human-computer interaction. Increasingly sophisticated software has become available to address input through natural speech and immersive environments, providing a virtual reality experience. See Virtual reality

Developing human-computer interactions involves design on both sides of the interaction. On the technology side, the designer must have a thorough understanding of the available hardware and software components and tools. On the human side, the designer must have a good understanding of how humans learn and work with computers, including envisioning new modes of working. The designer's task is to create effective, efficient, and satisfying interactions by balancing factors such as cost, benefits, standards, and the environmental constraints in which the interaction will take place.

Modern prototyping tools allow for the use of an iterative development model where a representative portion of the interface is designed and implemented with each iteration. Feedback from testers is used to enhance the design with each iteration. The final design consists of many elements: the resulting artifacts for use by the target population, as well as supporting elements such as an analysis of needs and tasks, descriptions of the dialog rules and users' conceptual models, expected scenarios of use, and the designer's rationale and reflections from the development process.

Human-Computer Interaction

(software, hardware)
(HCI) The study of how humans interact with computers, and how to design computer systems that are easy, quick and productive for humans to use.

See also Human-Computer Interface.

HCI Sites.
References in periodicals archive ?
The topics include enhancing the acquisition of social skills through the interacivity of multimedia, a user study on a visual editor to compose rules in active documents, a case study in Malaysia of a location-based visualization tool for tuberculosis and dengue, hand gesture recognition as a means for mobile human computer interaction in adverse working environments, and the impact of visual complexity on children's learning websites in relation to aesthetic preference and learning motivation.
With a Masters in Human Computer Interaction and a degree in Information Systems, Kyle has hands-on experience in the design, development and evaluation of interactive technologies.
Combining Inferno's flexible operating system with Allegro handwriting recognition is a key step in Fonix's efforts to lead the convergence of human computer interaction tools," said Murdock.
Human computer interaction company Fonix Corp has acquired the Papyrus group of companies from Cambridge, Massachusetts.
in applied mathematics and computer science from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), and has taught graduate-level courses at CMU's Human Computer Interaction Institute (HCII).
ePedagogy in online learning; new developments in web mediated human computer interaction.
Academic institutions with undergraduate and graduate programs in these main areas are encouraged to apply to the program: Information Systems, Computer Science, Software Engineering, Design and Innovation, Human Computer Interaction and Entrepreneurship.
This collection of eleven articles on human computer interaction highlights current research in integrated computing systems for both public and personal transportation.
Founded in 1984, Morgan Kaufmann publishes information in book and digital form in such areas as databases, computer networking, computer systems, computer architecture and design, human computer interaction, computer graphics, multimedia information and systems, artificial intelligence, and software engineering.
We have people on the team who are experts in linguistics, speech recognition, human computer interaction, animation, graphics and more.
He is an internationally recognized expert in the area of social-psychological aspects of human computer interaction.
Reutens said: "From a technology perspective, Immersion is an exciting place to be, its haptic innovations open up a whole new frontier for human computer interaction.

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