Human-machine systems

Human-machine systems

Complex systems that comprise both humans and machines. Human-machine systems engineering is the analysis, modeling, and design of such systems. It is distinguished from the more general field of human factors and from the related fields of human-computer interaction, engineering psychology, and sociotechnical systems theory in three general ways. First, human-machine systems engineering focuses on large, complex, dynamic control systems that often are partially automated (such as flying an airplane, monitoring a nuclear power plant, or supervising a flexible manufacturing system). Second, human-machine systems engineers build quantitative or computational models of the human-machine interaction as tools for analysis and frameworks for design. Finally, human-machine systems engineers study human problem-solving in naturalistic settings or in high-fidelity simulation environments. See Human-computer interaction, Human-factors engineering

Thus, human-machine systems engineering focuses on the unique challenges associated with designing joint technological and human systems. Historically it has grown out of work on cybernetics, control engineering, information and communication theory, and engineering psychology. Subsequently, researchers who focus on cognitive human-machine systems (in which human work is primarily cognitive rather than manual) have also referred to their specialization as cognitive engineering or cognitive systems engineering. See Cybernetics, Information theory

The four major aspects of human-machine systems, in roughly historical order, are systems in which the human acts as a manual controller, systems in which the human acts as a supervisory controller, human interaction with artificial-intelligence systems, and human teams in complex systems. This general progression is related to advances in computer and automation technology. With the increasing sophistication and complexity of such technology, the human role has shifted from direct manual control to supervisory control of physical processes, to supervision of intelligent systems, and finally, with an increasing emphasis on the social and organizational aspects of complex systems, to teamwork in complex environments.

Aviation is an example of a human-machine system in which all of these developments have occurred. Early work in aircraft systems focused on manual control models of pilot performance. With increasing levels of automation, the pilot shifted to a more supervisory role in which tasks such as planning and programming the flight management computer became the predominant form of work. See Aircraft instrumentation, Flight controls

References in periodicals archive ?
The scientific breakthrough will be achieved by creating and validating a holistic systems engineering structure that combines human-machine systems, product lifecycle management, business and organizational dynamics and lifecycle assessment.
Professor Okamura is an international expert whose research focuses on developing the principles and tools needed to realize advanced robotic and human-machine systems capable of haptic (touch) interaction, particularly for biomedical applications.
International conference on intelligent human-machine systems and cybernetics; 2v; proceedings.
We calculated the bandwidths and the information transmission rates of the human-machine systems using techniques developed for the study of manual control tasks [6-9,16].
The 165 papers of this 2-volume proceedings were first presented at the 2010 Internatinal Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics, held in Nanjing, China, in August and organized by the U.
Analysis of human-machine systems recognizes that both humans and machine elements can fail, and that human errors can have varying effects on a system.
Advances in Human-Machine Systems for In-Vehicle Environments: Noise and Cognitive Stress/Distraction
However, adaptiveness in Cooperative Human-Machine Systems on the Health, Aeronautics, Control Rooms and Automotive market is still sadly limited.
The 240 papers of this 2-volume proceedings were first presented at the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics, held in August 2009 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
The detailed results of the study were presented at the 10th Berlin Human-Machine Systems Workshop.
This two volume set comprises the proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics held at Hangzhou, China in August 2011, and showcases technical papers reviewed and accepted for presentation on a wide variety of topics.
Charles Wooley, Researcher, Lecturer, UM Center for Ergonomics: C4E is multi- disciplinary, devoted to education and research in the efficiency and safety of human-machine systems.

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