Humayun


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Humayun

or

Homayun

(ho͝omä`yo͞on), 1507–56, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56), son and successor of BaburBabur
[Turk.,=lion], 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia.
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. In 1535, pressed by enemy incursions into Rajasthan, Humayun defeated the formidable Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. However military opposition, particularly that of Sher KhanSher Khan
or Sher Shah
, 1486–1545, Afghan ruler in N India. He enlisted in the service of the Mughal leader Babur when the latter invaded India and became governor of Bihar.
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 in Bihar, grew in strength. Sher Khan overran Bengal in 1537, and Humayun was routed at Chausa in 1539 and crushingly defeated at Kanauj in 1540. Humayun fled to Sind and finally obtained shelter from Shah Tahmasp of Persia in 1544. After the death of Sher Khan's son, Humayun, with Persian support, invaded (1555) India and reestablished Mughal authority. He died soon after, and his son AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
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 became emperor.

Bibliography

See his memoirs, The Tezkereh al Vakiāt (tr. 1970); I. Prasad, Life and Times of Humayun (1955); study by R. S. Avasthy (1967).

Humayun

 

Born Mar. 6, 1508, in Kabul; died Jan. 27, 1556, in Delhi. Ruler of Mogul India.

Humayun inherited the Indian possessions of his father, Zahir al-Din Muhammad Baber. Although Humayun managed to conquer Malwa and Gujarat, he was defeated by Sher Shah, the ruler of Bihar, at Chausa in 1593 and at Kanauj in 1540 and was forced to flee to Iran. In Iran, Humayun gathered an army, with which he captured Kabul in 1545 and routed the army of Sikan-der Shah, a successor of Sher Shah, in 1555. Humayun then seized Delhi.

REFERENCE

Prasad, I. The Life and Times of Humayun. Bombay [1955].
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