Andrews, sets out to revise traditional interpretations of the early Humiliati
and to demonstrate the transition of the movement into an order.
The "Apostolic Movements" appear: Peter Waldo, the Humiliati
, Francis, Dominic, and their followers; the role of the councils of Lateran, Lyons, and Vienne; the Spirituals, Olivi, Penitents, Beghards, and Beguines; monastic life versus the life of canons regular; the atmosphere of the late thirteenth century; Aquinas, John of Paris, Giles of Rome, the Avignon Papacy, the Great Schism and conciliarism, the church of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries all march across the pages.
Among the earliest beneficiaries were the Humiliati
, the Trinitarians, and the founder of the Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Rome.
For comparative purposes it would have been interesting to know whether beguine communities--like Humiliati
houses in northern Italy, for example--were composed mainly of family groupings.
of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries provide a good example of such a life.
Miller, "The Ognissanti Madonna and the Humiliati
Order in Florence"; Benjamin G.
The earliest groups, such as the lay sect in Monforte near Turin, whose members were burned in 1034, and the better-known "apostolic" movements of the twelfth century, the Petrobrusians, Humiliati
, and Waldensians, professed a biblically-inspired life marked by poverty, preaching, hostility to the clergy, and a rejection of formal cult.
Some, like the religious confraternities, the guilds, the mendicant orders in their early days, the associations of mendicant Tertiaries, the Humiliati
, and the Beguines and Beghards were expressions of corporate religiosity.
It was this unchecked freedom within urban areas that gave rise to the Waldenses in France and the Humiliati
Julia Miller and Laurie Taylor-Mitchell devote the eighth chapter to the Ognissanti Madonna and the Humiliati
order in Florence, and compare it to Cimabue's S.
Counterbalancing the clergy's role in religious charity are lay charitable practices in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (chapter 5), apparent primarily in the vitae of male and female saints, in addition to "spiritual" movements and groups like the beguines and Humiliati
Later entries in the calendar of feasts that were of special importance to the Humiliati
corroborate these readings.