Hussites

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Hussites

(hŭs`īts), followers of John Huss. After the burning of Huss (1415) and Jerome of Prague (1416), the Hussites continued as a powerful group in Bohemia and Moravia. They drew up (1420) the Four Articles of Prague, demanding freedom of preaching, communion in both kinds (i.e., both wine and bread) for the laity as well as priests, the limitation of property holding by the church, and civil punishment of mortal sin, including simony.

Although it ultimately failed, the Hussite movement is of permanent historical significance. It was the first substantial attack upon the two bulwarks of medieval society, feudalism and the Roman Catholic Church. As such it helped pave the way for both the Protestant Reformation and the rise of modern nationalism.

The Utraquists and the Taborites

In 1419 the Hussite WarsHussite Wars,
series of conflicts in the 15th cent., caused by the rise of the Hussites in Bohemia and Moravia. It was a religious struggle between Hussites and the Roman Catholic Church, a national struggle between Czechs and Germans, and a social struggle between the landed
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 began, and in their course the Hussite movement splintered into several groups. The moderate group, called Utraquists [Lat. sub utraque specie=in both kinds] or Calixtines [Lat.,=chalice], consisted chiefly of the lesser nobility and the bourgeoisie. The Univ. of Prague was their center and Master Jan Rokycana their principal leader. Except for the demands made in the Four Articles, they agreed substantially with the Roman Catholic Church.

The more radical Hussites, the Taborites, named after their religious center and stronghold at Tabor, went further than the Utraquists in accepting the doctrines of John Wyclif. Consisting largely of peasants, this group expressed the messianic hopes of the oppressed. They regarded the Four Articles as minimal concessions. Their real goal was the total abolition of the feudal system and the establishment of a classless society without private property. From among their number came such leaders as John ZizkaZizka, John
, Czech Jan Žižka , d. 1424, Bohemian military leader and head of the Hussite forces during the anti-Hussite crusades of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund.
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 and Procopius the GreatProcopius the Great,
Czech Prokop Holý, d. 1434, Czech Hussite leader. A priest, he joined the Hussite movement (see Hussites) and distinguished himself as a captain under John Zizka in the Hussite Wars.
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. Puritanical and iconoclastic, the Taborites reduced the sacraments to communion and baptism, denied the Real Presence, and abolished the veneration of saints and holy images.

The Hussite Wars necessitated a temporary alliance between the two groups. However, when the Utraquists were reconciled (1436) with the church through the agreement known as the Compactata, the Taborites refused to acquiesce. Of the demands of the original Four Articles, the Catholic Church conceded only on communion in both kinds. The obstinacy of the Taborites led to the alliance between the Utraquists and the Catholics and to the military defeat of the Taborites at Lipany (1534). After this, Taborite influence vanished from Bohemia. The Bohemian and Moravian Brethren are, however, probably descended from this group (see Moravian ChurchMoravian Church,
 Renewed Church of the Brethren,
or Unitas Fratrum
, an evangelical Christian communion whose adherents are sometimes called United Brethren or Herrnhuters.
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).

Further Division and Suppression

The Utraquists obtained (1436) royal recognition of the Compactata, which remained the fundamental religious law of Bohemia until 1567. By that time Protestantism had made great progress in Bohemia, and the Utraquists themselves were divided. The Old Utraquists remained Catholic; the New Utraquists joined with the Lutherans and drew up (1575) the Confessio Bohemia, which achieved official status (1609) in the Letter of Majesty of Emperor Rudolph II (see BohemiaBohemia,
Czech Čechy, historic region (20,368 sq mi/52,753 sq km) and former kingdom, in W and central Czech Republic. Bohemia is bounded by Austria in the southeast, by Germany in the west and northwest, by Poland in the north and northeast, and by Moravia in the
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). The violation of this letter was the prelude to the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War

There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
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. Bohemia, which was overwhelmingly Protestant in the mid-16th cent., was returned to Catholicism by both force and persuasion. Nevertheless, the Evangelicals, as the Lutheran Utraquists were called, did not entirely disappear, and neither did the other major communion, the Moravian Church.

Bibliography

See H. Kaminsky, A History of the Hussite Revolution (1967); F. M. Bartos, The Hussite Revolution, 1424–1437 (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
Wenceslas leads an army together with the Hussite general Jan Zizka.
Musical culture in Bohemia, which by this time had evolved a distinctive identity, had many different layers and was responsive to trends in Europe as a whole, was severely hit by the explosion of the Hussite Revolution in the first half of the 15th century.
It was something that he used with explicit reference to the musical idiom of the distant past, especially in quotations from as it were "musical historical monuments", such as the chorales Kdoz jste bozi bojovnici [For that we are God's Warriors] in the Hussite Overture or Hospodine pomiluj ny [Lord Have Mercy upon Us] in St Ludmila, but in his Moravian and Slav period it had the beneficial effect of allowing him to break out of the closed circle of Baroque-Classical-Romantic tonality.
73) Miloslav Polivka, "Popular Movement as an Agent of the Hussite Revolution in Late Mediaeval Bohemia," in History and Society (eds.
I had my first public recital as an organist as a fourteen-year-old in the Hussite Church in Caslav.
Sadly, the "communion under both species," represented by the Hussite red flag with a chalice became a symbol or a fagade behind which the heretical Hussites, the ideological descendants of Wycliffe, hid other demands and heresies, forcing the papacy to condemn these heresies en masse.
The most dramatic drop in affiliation since 1950 is evident in followers of the Czechoslovak Hussite Church.
Prague is an elegant city whose charm and history have survived centuries of upheaval from the Hussite wars, to Soviet rule, to the onset of capitalism.
The central hub of the New City is Wenceslas Square (Vaclavske namesti), the site of almost every revolution in Prague from the Hussite revolt in 1419 to the Velvet Revolution in 1989, which brought a free and federalist constitution to the Czech Republic.
When further research revealed a connection between the commemorated pogrom and the logical disputation that preceded it, he concluded that abstract positions of theologians can "help shape decisions and justify actions that left an indelible imprint on the lives of their peers, the leaders of the Hussite movement, and the Viennese Jews.
Alexander Patschovsky's essay on the complexity of literacy among the Waldensians chips away at the adversarial topos of the heretic as illiterate; Anne Brenon surveys the genres of late Waldensian Occitan-language book collections; and Pierette Paravy considers textual practice as social dynamic among the Waldensians of the Dauphine, whose reading came to assimilate Hussite materials.
the Catholic Church failed to adopt a modernised approach from within and introduce Czech as the liturgical language, and ultimately, in 1920, there was a schism, which led to the formation of the national Czechoslovak Church (today, the Czechoslovak Hussite Church).