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(hī`dərəbăd'), former princely state, S central India. The former princedom of Hyderabad is now divided among the states of KarnatakaKarnataka
, formerly Mysore
, state (2001 provisional pop. 52,733,958), 74,122 sq mi (191,976 sq km), SW India, bordering on the Arabian Sea. It is bordered on the north by the states of Goa and Maharashtra, on the east by Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, on the south by
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, MaharashtraMaharashtra
, state (2001 provisional pop. 96,752,247), 118,530 sq mi (306,993 sq km), W India, on the Arabian Sea. The city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) is the capital. The state was formed in 1960, when the old state of Bombay was split along linguistic lines into two new
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, and TelanganaTelangana,
state (2011 pop. 35,286,757), 44,340 sq mi (114,840 sq km), S central India. Created in 2014 from NW Andhra Pradesh, it is bordered by Maharashtra (N), Chhattisgarh and Odisha (NE), Andhra Pradesh (SE and S), and Karnataka (W).
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. The MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 empire conquered Hyderabad in the late 17th cent. In 1724 the viceroy Nizam-al-Mulk, founder of the last royal line, became its independent ruler. Later nizams (rulers) sought to maintain their independence, but the dynasty was forced to accede to British protection in 1798. In 1903, Berar, then the northernmost section of the state, was transferred to British administration. When India was partitioned (1947), the nizam, one of India's most important Muslim princes, wished to remain independent. Some 80% of Hyderabad's inhabitants were Hindu, however. After a series of religious battles, allegedly staged by India, the Indian army invaded Hyderabad in 1948. The population, in a plebiscite, endorsed accession to India. Hyderabad became a state in 1950 but was partitioned among neighboring states in 1956. The nizam, forced to renounce nearly all of his fortune, was removed from power.

Hyderabad, city (1991 pop. 4,344,437), central Telangana, former capital of Hyderabad and now the joint capital of Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh
, state (2011 pop. 49,386,799), 61,855 sq mi (160,205 sq km), SE India, on the Bay of Bengal. The state was created in 1956 from the Telugu-speaking portions of Madras (now Tamil Nadu) and Hyderabad states.
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 and TelanganaTelangana,
state (2011 pop. 35,286,757), 44,340 sq mi (114,840 sq km), S central India. Created in 2014 from NW Andhra Pradesh, it is bordered by Maharashtra (N), Chhattisgarh and Odisha (NE), Andhra Pradesh (SE and S), and Karnataka (W).
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, was founded as a fort (named Bhagyanagar) in 1589 by the ruler of the GolcondaGolconda
, ruined city, Telangana state, SE India. It was the capital (c.1364–1512) of the Bahmani kingdom, but after 1512 it became the capital of the Muslim sultanate of Golconda.
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 kingdom. An administrative and commercial center and a transportation hub, the city has fine ancient structures, notably the Charminar (1591) and the Old Bridge (1593); the Golconda Fort (16th cent.) and Qtub Shahi tombs (16th–17th cent.) are nearby. Several scientific technical institutes have been set up, including the National Geophysical Institute and the Remote Sensing Agency, making Hyderabad a science and technology center. A number of information technology businesses and drug companies also have offices there. It is also the seat of Osmania Univ. and of the Central Univ. of Hyderabad. The former British cantonment of Secunderabad is now a twin city. The capital of Andhra Pradesh after that state's creation in 1956, Hyderabad also became the capital of Telangana after it was separated from Andhra Pradesh in 2014. The city is slated to remain the joint capital of the two states for a decade while a new capital is constructed for Andhra Pradesh.


city (1998 pop. 1,151,274), Sind prov., S Pakistan. Pakistan's fourth largest city, it has long been noted for its embroideries, precious-metal goods, and cutlery. It now has industries in food processing, textiles, hosiery, cement, cigarettes, glass, soap, paper, leather goods, and plastics. Founded in 1768 by Ghulam Shah Kalhora, Hyderabad was laid out by his son, Sarfaraz Khan, in 1782 and was the capital of the emirs of Sind. The British East India Company occupied Hyderabad when the Sind became a British protectorate in 1839. In the city are the Univ. of Sind and 32 affiliated colleges. Umarkot, birthplace of the great Mughal emperor AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
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, is nearby.



one of the largest princely states in India from 1724 to 1950; a state in the Indian Union from 1950 to 1956. Area, 215,005 sq km (1951). Population, 18.7 million (1951). The princely state encompassed territories inhabited by speakers of such languages as Telugu, Marathi, and Kannada.

Hyderabad arose as a result of the decline of the Great Moguls’ power. In 1724, Nizam-ul-Mulk (Regulator of the State), the vicegerent of the Mogul domains of Bijapur and Golconda, proclaimed himself the independent ruler of a state comprising these areas. In 1768, however, the nizam who was then ruling the area was forced to sign a subsidiary treaty with the East India Company (seeSUBSIDIARY TREATY). As a result of this agreement, Hyderabad lost the right to defend itself and to conduct its own foreign policy. In 1778 a British resident was assigned to the state.

India gained its independence in 1947; under pressure from the masses, the nizam signed an agreement in 1948 on the accession of Hyderabad to the Indian Union. In 1950, in accordance with the constitution, Hyderabad became a state in the union, and the nizam was made rajpramukh (head of the executive branch of the state government). In 1956 the state of Hyderabad was abolished as a result of an administrative reform. Its territory was incorporated into the states of Andhra Pradesh, Mysore, and Bombay, which was itself divided in 1960 into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The nizam retained his real property and treasures; he was also granted a pension, but such pensions were abolished in the early 1970’s.


Deviatkina, T. F. Likvidatsiia kniazhestv v sovremmenoi Indii. Moscow, 1961.
White Paper on Indian States. New Delhi. 1950.
Menon, V. P. The Story of the Integration of the Indian States. Bombay, 1956.



a city in India, situated on the Musi River. Capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Population, 1.8 million (1971). Hyderabad is a transportation junction and a commercial and industrial center of southern India. Its industries include machine building—especially the construction of locomotives and railroad cars in the suburbs—and the manufacture of textiles, leather goods, food products, pharmaceuticals, glass, cigarettes, and paper. Cottage industry includes the production of household articles, fabrics, and finely crafted articles. Osmania University is located in the city.

Hyderabad was founded in 1589 as the capital of Golconda. From 1724 to 1950 it was the capital of the princely state of Hyderabad and the residence of the nizams; from 1950 to 1956 it was the capital of the state of Hyderabad, and since 1956 it has been the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh.

The Mecca Masjid (17th century), the city’s most important mosque, is one of the most outstanding examples of architecture in Hyderabad. Many new buildings have been erected in the 20th century, including the Osmania University complex (begun in 1918;. finished in the 1960’s), a theater (1962, architects M. Faiyazzadin and others), and many industrial, business, commercial, and residential buildings. To the west of Hyderabad is the fortress of Golconda (16th—17th centuries); it includes a complex of domed mausoleums in which the rulers of Golconda are buried. The Salar Jung Museum, which houses works of European and Eastern art, and an archaeological museum containing local relics are also located in Hyderabad.



a city in Pakistan, on the Indus River. Capital of the province of Sind. Population, 624,000 (1972). Hyderabad is a river port and an important railroad and highway junction. A natural-gas pipeline runs from the city to Sui. Hyderabad is a center of the textile industry. It also has enterprises for the manufacture of leather goods, footwear, chemical products, food products, agricultural machinery, and ships. The city produces handicrafts, including woven goods, jewelry, and pottery. The University of Sind is located in Hyderabad.


1. a city in S central India, capital of Andhra Pradesh state and capital of former Hyderabad state; university (1918). Pop.: 3 449 878 (2001)
2. a former state of S India: divided in 1956 between the states of Andhra Pradesh, Mysore, and Maharashtra
3. a city in SW Pakistan, on the River Indus: seat of the University of Sind (1947). Pop.: 1 392 000 (2005 est.)
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