Hydraulic Jump


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Hydraulic jump

An abrupt increase of depth in a free-surface liquid flow. A hydraulic jump is characterized by rapid flow and small depths on the upstream side, and by larger depths and smaller velocities on the downstream side. A jump can form only when the upstream flow is supercritical, that is, when the fluid velocity is greater than the propagation velocity c of a small, shallow-water gravity wave (c = gh, where g is the acceleration of gravity and h is the depth). A considerable amount of energy is dissipated in the conversion from supercritical to subcritical flow. See Open channel

Hydraulic Jump

 

an abrupt turbulent rise in water level in an open channel during a change in flow from a so-called turbulent condition to a calm condition. Hydraulic jump is accompanied by the formation of a surface “roller,” within which the heavily air-saturated fluid is in compound rotary motion.

Hydraulic jump usually occurs during the passage of a flow through the openings of hydraulic structures, such as spillways and floodgates. Channel degradations can occur as a result of high flow rates along the bottom in the hydraulic jump zone. The theory of hydraulic jumps is treated in hydraulics.

hydraulic jump

[hī′drȯ·lik ′jəmp]
(fluid mechanics)
A steady-state, finite-amplitude disturbance in a channel, in which water passes turbulently from a region of (uniform) low depth and high velocity to a region of (uniform) high depth and low velocity; when applied to hydraulic jumps, the usual hydraulic formulas governing the relations of velocity and depth do not conserve energy.

hydraulic jump

hydraulic jump
A phenomenon at the transition from high to low velocity in the horizontal pipe at the base of a vertical drain (i.e., a drainage stack) where the flow of water changes from a vertical to horizontal direction; results in a discontinuity in flow at a short distance downstream from the base of the drainage stack. (See illustration p. 524.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Extensive hydraulic testing was performed at the Engineering Research Center at Colorado State University and included steady state overtopping, levee wave overtopping, hydraulic jump, debris resistance and performance in a damaged state.
Experimental study of the air-water shear flow in a hydraulic jump, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 26: 583-607.
The undular hydraulic jump in turbulent open channel flow at large Reynolds numbers.
Civil engineering applications are described, including air quality prediction, finite-element model updating, hydraulic jump, and seismic attenuation relationships.
Table 1: Analogous quantities of classical hydraulic analogy 2D gas flow Free Surface incompressible water flow Temperature ratio T/T0 Hydraulic depth ratio h/h0 Density ratio Hydraulic depth ratio h/h0 Pressure ratio P/P0 Sq of hydraulic depths ratio (h/h0)2 Sound Velocity a0 Wave Velocity _(gh) Mach number V/ a0 Froude number V/_(gh) Velocity ratio V/Vmax Velocity ratio V/ Vmax Subsonic flow M<1 Streaming Water flow Fr<1 Supersonic flow M>1 Shooting Water Flow Fr>1 Compressible shock Hydraulic jump
Description: During the original construction of the North Diversion Channel, baffle blocks were constructed in the lowest point, or bathtub, to force a hydraulic jump to occur, which
2])of hydraulic jump in stilling basin is measured- where the oscillation of water surface and number of bubble in flow is few- and then initial depth([y.
Among specific topics are energy and momentum principles, computing uniform flow, spatially varied flow, hydraulic jump and its use as energy dissipater, and flood routing.
In the experiments, it was observed that after passing through the sluice gate, the height of the density current increases and an internal hydraulic jump occurs.
Christodoulou [1] examined the formation of a hydraulic jump in the combination of the three branches flow.
Christodoulou [1] conducted experiments to obtain a criterion for the formation of a hydraulic jump in the combination of rectangular three branches flows.