Hydronephrosis


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Related to Hydronephrosis: hydroureter

hydronephrosis

[‚hī·drə·nə′frō·səs]
(medicine)
Accumulation of urine in and distension of the renal pelvis and calyces due to obstructed outflow.

Hydronephrosis

 

a disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the cavities of the kidneys, with subsequent anemia and the atrophy of renal tissue.

Hydronephrosis is the result of an impairment of urinary discharge from the renal pelvis (most often the dextral one). The disease is found most commonly in women between the ages of 20 and 40 and in children. Congenital hydronephroses develop when there are defects in the development of the urinary system; mechanical, when there is blockage of the renal pelvis or ureter by a calculus, tumor, or inflammatory cicatrix; dynamic, when there is damage to the neuromuscular apparatus of the renal pelvis and ureter; and traumatic, when there are wounds to the ureter or pressure on it from adhesions after a blunt injury. Disruption of the discharge of urine leads to distention of the renal pelvis and calyces and an increase in intrarenal pressure, as a result of which the blood vessels are constricted and the blood circulation in the kidney impaired. Atrophy of the renal parenchyma gradually develops. If treated in time, the organ may be restored. Usually hydronephrosis develops asymptomatically, but sometimes there are attacks of renal colic or dull pains in the region of the kidneys, blood in the urine (hematuria), and, when there is accompanying infection, pus in the urine (pyuria). Treatment is surgical.

REFERENCE

Abramian, A. Ia. “Gidronefroz i gidroureter.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po khirurgii, vol. 9. Edited by B. V. Petrovskii. Moscow, 1959.

V. G. TSOMYK and V. M. VERTEPOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Computed tomography has advantages that size of kidneys, extent of renal damage, renal calculus and its size, hydronephrosis and its extent, renal cystitis and abscess, calculus and residual post-voidal urine in the bladder, renal parenchymal changes and renal tumor (benign or metastatic) can be assessed.
On presentation, 23(46%) patients had grade 2 hydronephrosis, 17(34%) had grade 3 hydronephrosis and 10(20%) had grade 4 hydronephrosis.
However, unilateral hydronephrosis in addition to finding of stone on ultrasound increases its sensitivity to 81.
Symptomatic physiologic hydronephrosis in pregnancy: incidence, complications, and treatment.
Our study design required the subjective identification of the secondary signs of obstruction, including hydronephrosis, perinephric stranding, and nephromegaly, followed by the subjective determination of the stone as being either obstructed, partially obstructed, or non-obstructed.
Short-term outcome of mild isolated antenatal hydronephrosis conservatively managed.
Two Autopsy Cases of Congenital Hydronephrosis Due To Ureteral obstruction.
1%) patients included: mild to severe hydronephrosis in all cases, one megaureter and one case suspected of nephrolithiasis.
Caption: Figure 3: Doppler ultrasound performed on post-op day 1 after surgical detorsion demonstrated normal arterial blood flow with residual mild hydronephrosis and persistent enlargement of the renal allograft.
A renal transplant US revealed moderate to severe hydronephrosis with hydroureter; however, the distal portion was not visualized.
Ultrasound sonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and ureteral stones.
Radiologic Diagnosis: Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Left Hydronephrosis