Hydroxy Acids

Hydroxy Acids

 

(or hydroxycarboxylic acids), organic compounds containing one or more carboxyl (—COOH) and hydroxyl (—OH) groups per molecule. Examples are glycolic acid, HOCH2COOH; α-hydroxypropionic (lactic) acid, CH3CH(OH)COOH; and β-hydroxypropionic (hydracrylic) acid, HOCH2CH2COOH. Hydroxy acids are extremely reactive compounds. They readily undergo dehydration upon heating to form various products, depending on structure, as follows: (1) α-hydroxy acids yield lactides (cyclic esters), (2) β-hydroxy acids form unsaturated acids, (3) γ- and δ-hydroxy acids yield inner esters (lactones).

Hydroxy acids may be prepared by oxidation of glycols containing at least one primary –OH group, by saponification of hydroxynitriles, and by reaction of nitric acid and amino acids. Hydroxy acids and their derivatives are widespread in nature. Another commercially valuable hydroxy acid is o-hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid), whose derivatives are used as pharmaceuticals and in the manufacture of azo dyes.

References in periodicals archive ?
Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) are well suited for use by individuals with dry skin because hydroxy acids act as humectants (water-soluble materials with high water absorption capabilities).
Chemical exfoliates like beta hydroxy and alpha hydroxy acids are dependent on proper pH for them to work best.
NeoStrata, based in Princeton, NJ, has a history of innovation that includes breakthrough research in alpha hydroxy acids, which have become a standard among anti-aging technologies in the beauty category.
Alpha hydroxy acids and Beta hydroxy acids may be useful in higher concentrations against acne, solar hyperpigmentation and photoageing.
based, NeoStrata has to its credit innovation which includes breakthrough research in Alpha hydroxy acids, which have become a standard among anti-aging technologies in the beauty category.
J, NeoStrata's innovation includes breakthrough research in Alpha hydroxy acids, which have become a standard among anti-aging technologies in the beauty category.
They include alpha hydroxy acids, which can also increase the thickness of deeper layers of skin, promoting skin firmness.
Daily exfoliating cream that contains Alpha Hydroxy Acids help to encourage continuous exfoliation of the outer layers of the skin and avoiding blockage of the follicles which is the primary cause of acne.
The clinically proven products are the only moisturizers with the combination of alpha and beta hydroxy acids, ceramides, niacinamide, and urea, says Clark.
It's hydrating and instantly improves your skin's texture with a powerful combination of alpha hydroxy acids and repairing Vitamins B, and E.
It falls into the set of ingredients called AHA's, or alpha hydroxy acids.
Functional agents currently include alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), poly-AHAs, complex poly-AHAs, retinoids, fish polysaccharides, anti-enzymatic agents, antioxidants (including ascorbic acid, pycnogenol, ursolic acid, vegetable isoflavones, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, resveratorol, l-carnosine, and taurine) as well as agaricic acid and various plant extracts.