Population based nationwide study of hypospadias
in Sweden, 1973 to 2009: Incidence and risk factors.
Statistically speaking, having a hypospadias
means you're more likely to have these other things, too.
An understanding of the vascular anatomy of hypospadias
, avoiding entry into the dorsal pedicle or the spongiosum ventrally will make for a haemostatic procedure with minimal blood loss.
Conclusions: Single penile incision for both hypospadias
repair and correction of inguinal pathology is a feasible technique and comparable to the conventional approach, with similar surgical outcomes and shorter overall operative time.
It can be opted for patients of hypospadias
with chordee as a single staged procedure when combined with urethroplasty.
GWAS for developmental defects of the male reproductive system have also identified candidate genes for hormonal (AR, steroidogenesis, ESR1, and ESR2) and nonhormonal (FGF8, FGFR2, BMP4, and BMP7) pathways underlying hypospadias
(Carmichael et al.
KEY WORDS: Dexamethasone, Post operative pain, Hypospadias
Keywords: Severe hypospadias
, Dartos fascial flap, Urethrocutanous fistula.
The cause of hypospadias
is not known, it is presumed that affected foetus may secret inadequate quantities of testosterone or that there may be inadequate conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in target tissues of urogenital sinus and external genitalia.
This can possibly lead to four conditions: cryptorchidism, hypospadias
, impaired spermatogenesis, and testicular cancer .
is a rare congenital anomaly of the urethra, in which the urethra opens ventral and caudal to its normal anatomic location [1-4].
They are the ones confronting rising cases of hypospadias
, a birth defect in which boys are born with a urethra opening on the side of the penis rather than at the tip.