transformational grammar

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transformational grammar

See CHOMSKY.

Transformational Grammar

 

(1) A variant of generative grammar, which is an explicit description of a large number of grammatically correct sentences of a language that makes it possible to identify sentences which are correct in the given language. Transformational grammar is distinct from other types of generative grammar in that it distinguishes between the deep structure of a sentence, which determines the sentence’s semantic interpretation, and the surface structure, which determines the sentence’s phonetic character. In transformational grammar, syntax has two components: the base component, or phrase structure component, which consists of rules governing the deep structures of a language, and the transformation component, which converts deep structures into corresponding surface structures.

(2) A linguistic theory also known as transformational-generative grammar. It arose in the 1950’s and considers the most important task of descriptive linguistics to be the construction of a transformational grammar. The theory was founded by the American linguist N. Chomsky; other adherents have included R. Lees, C. Fillmore, E. Klima, E. Bach, J. Katz, J. Fodor, M. Bierwisch, and R. Rüzicka.

In the late 1960’s the concept of deep structure was reexamined owing to a growing need to relate syntactic description with meaning. Transformational-generative grammar divided into two schools. The first school, headed by R. Jackendoff and R. Dougherty, was that of interpretive semantics. It retained the concept of deep structure but permitted rules of semantic interpretation that use information other than the information contained in the deep structure. The second school, that of generative semantics, rejected the concept of deep structure and developed rules for generating the sentences of a language directly from their semantic representations. The main representatives of this school are G. Lakoff, J. McCawley, J. Ross, and P. Postal.

E. V. PADUCHEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
This latter view reflects the idea that E-language is the basis on which we come up with a model of I-language.
Let me now give some examples of the dialogic relationship between I-language and E-language in the domain of morphology.
A second example of the interaction between I-language and E-language in the domain of morphology is the phenomenon of degrees of productivity.
According to Scheffe analysis, participants who used I-language in their interpersonal relationships had higher assertiveness levels than did those who did not use this language.
In this research, participants who used I-language in their interpersonal relationships had higher assertiveness levels than did those who did not use this language.
TABLE 1 THE ASSERTIVENESS LEVELS ACCORDING TO USING I-LANGUAGE AND EVALUATION OF SELF-IMAGE N M SD F Evaluation of I am handsome or 105 32.
Thus, the idea that I-Language computes randomly selected LI's "autonomously," bottom up, and largely in vain at that, is simply unacceptable to common sense.
To directly capture the expressive function that I-Language obviously performs, grammatical architecture must be either "semantocentric," as in Generative Semantics, Levelt (1989), and the "functionalist" models (e.
This divergence between the mapping generated by the I-language and that provided by the parser is an example of the mismatch which, according to Franks, threatens the explanatory power of Chomskyan linguistics.
The distinction between a grammar or I-language and a parser yields a way of capturing the difference between Franks' conception of linguistic theory and that of Chomsky.
The I-language consists of a computational procedure and a lexicon.
On more theory-internal grounds, then, we take an I-language to be an instantiation of the initial state, idealizing from actual states of the language faculty.