I. A. Richards

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Richards, I. A.

(Ivor Armstrong Richards), 1893–1979, English literary critic. Richards was one of the founders of the school of interpretation known as the New Criticism, which stressed an awareness of textual and psychological nuance and ambiguity when studying literature. He advocated this viewpoint in influential studies including The Meaning of Meaning (with C. K. Ogden, 1923), Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), and Practical Criticism (1929) (see criticismcriticism,
the interpretation and evaluation of literature and the arts. It exists in a variety of literary forms: dialogues (Plato, John Dryden), verse (Horace, Alexander Pope), letters (John Keats), essays (Matthew Arnold, W. H.
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). Richards's own poetry included Internal Colloquies: Poems and Plays (1973) and Beyond (1974) Richards was well-known for his creation, with Charles Kay Ogden, of a simplified language called Basic English, which consists of a primary vocabulary of 850 words. He championed its adoption in books such as Basic English and Its Uses (1943) and So Much Nearer: Essays Toward a World English (1968), and in his teaching at Cambridge and Harvard; he even translated Plato's Republic into Basic English.

Bibliography

See biography by J. P. I. Russo (1989).