International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

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International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

(IBRD), independent specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters at Washington, D.C.; one of five closely associated development institutions (also including the International Center for Settlement of Investment DisputesInternational Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes
(ICSID), specialized agency of the United Nations. A member of the World Bank Group (see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development), it was formed in 1966 and has its headquarters in Washington, D.C.
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, International Finance Corporation (see below), International Development Association (see below), and Multilateral Investment Guarantee AgencyMultilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(MIGA), specialized agency of the United Nations. Formed in 1988, with headquarters in Washington, D.C., it is a member of the World Bank Group (see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) and membership in the MIGA is open
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) that constitute the World Bank Group. Plans were laid at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944) for the formation of a world bank; the IBRD was formally organized as the original institution of the World Bank in 1945, when 28 countries ratified the agreement; there are now 189 members. The IBRD aims at reducing poverty in middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries through loans, guarantees, risk management products, and analytical and advisory services. The bank not only makes loans to member nations, but, under government guarantee, to private investors, for the purpose of facilitating productive investment, encouraging foreign trade, and discharging burdens of international debt. All members of the bank must also belong to the International Monetary FundInternational Monetary Fund
(IMF), specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. It was planned at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944), and its headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
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. The bank is self-sustaining and has maintained a profit on its lending activities. It is controlled by a board of governors, one from each member state. Votes are allocated according to capital subscription. Ordinary affairs are conducted by 22 executive directors, five appointed by the five largest capital subscribers, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States, and 17 elected by the remaining members. Regional vice presidents oversee the bank's operations in five regions: Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, East Africa, West Africa, and (in one grouping) Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.

The bank also operates the Economic Development Institute, which offers training in economic development for officials of member countries. Another development institution is the International Finance Corporation (IFC; est. 1956), which invests in private enterprises without government guarantee. The IFC has 184 member nations. The bank organized the International Development Association (IDA; 1960) to extend credit on easier terms, mainly to developing countries. The IDA has 172 member nations. Members of the IFC and IDA must be members of the IBRD. Criticism that the IBRD-financed projects were environmentally destructive led the bank to establish an environmental fund (1990) providing low-interest loans for developing countries; the IBRD continues to be criticized to failing to adequately address human rights in its development work. Developing nations have complained that the IBRD imposes the free-market system on them, thereby discouraging planning, nationalization, and public investment.

Bibliography

See E. S. Mason and R. E. Asher, The World Bank since Bretton Woods (1973); C. Payer, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis (1982); S. Please, The Hobbled Giant: Essays on the World Bank (1984); E. Conway, The Summit: Bretton Woods, 1944 (2015).

References in periodicals archive ?
continued improvements in economic performance and creditworthiness this CPS proposes IBRD investment lending averaging about $500 million per year within an overall IBRD lending envelope of $2.
IFC and IBRD coordinated closely in financing the Uch Power project, in which IFC provided debt financing of US$131 million both syndicated and from its own account and the IBRD provided a partial risk guarantee of a parallel commercial loan tranche.
With a reputation for imposing discipline on its borrowers, for cool-headed, unsentimental economic analysis, and with an unshakable AAA credit rating, the World Bank, particularly the IBRD, always had seemed the most prudent of financial institutions .
Another $150 million loan was provided by the IBRD for development of horticulture.
The objective of the Regional Potable Water Supply Systems project (1,740 million MAD supported by a US$175 million equivalent IBRD Loan) is to increase access to potable water supply for selected local communities in the provinces of Nador, Driouch, Safi, Youssoufia, Sidi Bennour and Errachidia.
Disbursements from IBRD and IDA - an important measure of impact on the ground - also reached record levels, and are expected to be around $40 billion, up from $28 billion in FY09, due to concerted and sustained efforts by bank management and staff to respond more quickly to client demand.
In the speeches by the heads of the IBRD and IMF, by the heads of key national delegations (the number such speeches should be reduced), and by the head of the host government these few subjects should be emphasized; they should be the heard of the matter.
8 million, IBRD $229 million, IBRD$ 91 million, China $323 million and Japan disbursement remained at $101 million.
The IBRD loan to IIFCL has a 28 year maturity including a 7.
While we expect all of these institutions to continue to receive preferred creditor treatment, the implications of that treatment differ between IBRD and IADB, on one hand, and IFC and IIC, on the other," said Mr.
The strength of the combined entity would be greater than the sum of its parts, with a heightened AAA debt capacity to the benefit of existing IBRD bondholders.