isoniazid

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isoniazid

(ī'sōnī`əzĭd), drug used to treat tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycinstreptomycin
, antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g.
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 or para-aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone. Side effects are seen only with very high doses.

isoniazid

[‚ī·sə′nī·ə·zəd]
(pharmacology)
C6H7N3O A drug used as a tuberculostatic. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
References in periodicals archive ?
TB cultural growths were further subjected to BACTEC MGIT-960 tubes for INH, RIF, STR, ETH and PZA susceptibility testing and it was found that 6 isolates were RIF and INH resistant (MDR-TB) while 4 M.
9,45,46) In a CFS cohort with decreased C1 INH and complement C4, there was an increased frequency of autoantibodies, especially anti-thyroid microsomal and ANA; circulating immune complexes (42%); and, ".
Reduction in the catalase-peroxidase activities might further trigger the emergence of INH resistance in clinical isolates L19.
For the management of an INH overdose, after initial stabilisation, gastric lavage is indicated within 1 hour of INH ingestion.
Interestingly, (-)-deoxypergularinine was strongly synergistic with INH and rifampicin but the synergy with streptomycin was borderline.
16) The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), defined as the lowest drug concentration showing complete inhibition of bacterial growth, were as follow: INH [less than or equal to] 0.
In a 2011 multicenter trial, investigators reported a significantly higher completion rate for weekly rifapentine plus INH (900 mg each; 82% vs.
If during treatment transaminases increase to >3 times normal in a symptomatic patient (or >5 times normal in an asymptomatic patient), INH should be stopped and generally not resumed, even after LFTs return to normal.
The assay is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with reverse hybridization on nitrocellulose strips targeting common mutations for RIF and INH resistance.