isoniazid

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isoniazid

(ī'sōnī`əzĭd), drug used to treat tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycinstreptomycin
, antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g.
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 or para-aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone. Side effects are seen only with very high doses.

isoniazid

[‚ī·sə′nī·ə·zəd]
(pharmacology)
C6H7N3O A drug used as a tuberculostatic. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
References in periodicals archive ?
National and international guidelines have consistently recommended INH prophylaxis given for 6 months in children under 5 years of age or HIV-infected children of any age, who are exposed to a household TB contact or have a positive tuberculin skin test.
All children on placebo were switched to open-label INH and accessed ART through the public programme.
JALMA 136 RIF rpo B TCG [right arrow] TTG INH kat G CGG [right arrow] CTG inh A No mutation 2.
g) Nondistinguishable haplotypes: *5G/*12Afrom *5B/*12B (1 individual), as well as *5B/*12A from *5C/*12C (3 individuals)--the overall group was classified as *5/*12, because significant differences between the suballeles concerning the metabolism of INH have not been documented.
All study participants were males and were required to meet the following criteria: (i) age 18-50 yr, (ii) no significant hepatic or renal dysfunction (liver transaminases, blood urea and creatinine within normal limits), (iii) non-diabetic, (iv) CD4 cell counts [greater than or equal to] 350 cells/[micro]l (3), (v) not taken RMP or INH for atleast a month before start of the study, and (vi) willing to give informed written consent.
The patient was treated with antituberculous drugs (INH, RIF, EMB, PZA, plus CLR and CIP) for 6 months, and then INH, RIF, CLR, CIP were continued for 2 additional months (Table), after which the patient showed clinical improvement.
3) RMP, INH and PZA are the most important elements in our current 'first-line' regimen.
The experienced HEAVENLY BUCK reverts to the level in the Puckane INH Flat Race and may just be good enough.
The seven-year-old lost by a short head on his hurdling debut at Navan last month but the experience ought to be of benefit for today 's INH Stallion Owners EBF Maiden Hurdle, said Colm Murphy (left), who trains Zaarito for the Victoria Syndicate.
The South African national tuberculosis programme (NTP) (2) currently recommends either a 6-month regimen of isoniazid (INH), 5 times a week, or 3 months of directly observed INH plus rifampicin (60/30), for all children who are household contacts of smear-positive PTB cases.
Author, Intervention/ Enrolled (n) country, comparison; INH/ dates Population blinding control Ferebee, Household 12 mo INH 4-7 7,755/7,996 USA, 1957- contacts of mg/kg/day/placebo; NS (18) TB patients double blind Katz, USA, Mental 2 y INH, 300 mg 118/107 1958-1964 hospital daily/no treatment; (19) patients not blind with inactive lesions Horwitz, 76 villages 2 X 13 wk INH, 400 4,174/3,907 Greenland, mg twice weekly/0.