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(International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY, One of the world's oldest and largest computer companies with revenues of USD $80 billion in 2018. IBM derives most of its income from software and services (see IBM Cloud).

IBM's hardware lines include mainframes (see IBM Z) and midrange models (see Power Systems). Although IBM was a major player in personal computers, Lenovo acquired IBM's PC line in 2004 and the Intel x86 server family in 2014.

The company started in New York in 1911 when the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was created by a merger of The Tabulating Machine Company (Hollerith's punch card company in Washington, DC), International Time Recording Company (time clock maker in NY state), Computing Scale Company (maker of scales and food slicers in Dayton, Ohio), and Bundy Manufacturing (time clock maker in Auburn, NY). CTR started out with 1,200 employees and a capital value of $17.5 million.

In 1914, Thomas J. Watson, Sr., became general manager. During the next 10 years, he dispensed with all non-tabulating business and turned it into an international enterprise renamed IBM in 1924. Watson instilled a strict, professional demeanor in his employees that set IBMers apart from the rest of the crowd.

IBM achieved spectacular success with its punch card tabulating machines. From the 1920s through the 1960s, it developed a huge customer base that was ideal for conversion to computers, spearheaded by Watson's son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr.

IBM launched its computer business in 1953 with the 701 and introduced the 650 a year later. By the end of the 1950s, the 650 was the most widely used computer in the world with 1,800 systems installed. The 1401, announced in 1959, was its second winner; and by the mid-1960s, an estimated 18,000 were in use. See IBM 650 and IBM 1401.

In 1964, IBM announced the System/360, the first family of computers ever developed. The 360s were enormously successful and set a standard underlying IBM mainframes to this day. See System/360.

During the 1970s and 1980s, IBM made a variety of incompatible minicomputers (see System 34, System 36 and System/38). Its highly successful AS/400, introduced in 1988, provided a line of compatible machines for small business, evolving two decades later into the Power Systems family (see AS/400).

In 1981, IBM introduced the PC into a chaotic personal computer field and set the standard almost overnight. Although one of the largest PC vendors, Lenovo acquired IBM's laptop business in 2004 and its Intel-based servers in 2014 (see System x). IBM let Lenovo, HP, Dell, Toshiba and others compete for the end-user market it created (see IBM PC and Lenovo).

In the late 1990s, IBM embraced the Linux operating system on all of its product lines. This was a major shift for a company known for proprietary software. Today, IBM mainframes continue to flourish as a huge amount of enterprise data is still processed by these machines with a lineage dating back five decades.

The Man Who Built an Empire
This photo of Thomas J. Watson, Sr., was taken in 1920, four years before he renamed the company IBM. (Image courtesy of IBM.)

IBM Office, London, 1935
"Dayton Money Making Machines" were sold all across the world. IBM became an international enterprise in the late 1930s. (Image courtesy of IBM.)
References in periodicals archive ?
On International Women's Days, IBM Egypt collaborated with "Injaz" to provide Egyptian women with a training on Design Thinking and provide them with the know-how on how to quickly find innovative solutions to solve work problems in real time.
After earning a bachelor's degree in Management Tech, and a diploma in management from AUC, he was lucky to get into a full IT engineering scholarship program at IBM Egypt.
Ahmed Bourham, systems group manager at IBM Egypt, added: "In today's environment, risk and fraud management must be pervasive throughout an organisation's culture and operating model.
Juhayna Food Industries is effectively preparing for the future with an end-to-end development plan for its technology infrastructure, said Amr Talaat, General Manager, IBM Egypt.
Prior to that, he held the position of general manager of IBM Egypt.
On the occasion of announcing the results of the agreement, The Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) held a press conference that was attended by a delegation from the MTI headed by Sahar El Sallab, Assistant to the Minister for Development and Investment in Internal Trade and IBM Corporate and Egyptian team headed by Amr Talaat, IBM Egypt Territory Manager.
Mobile telephony is not a status symbol any more," said the 54-year-old CEO, who headed IBM Egypt for 13 years and worked as a private consultant for two years before assuming his current position.
IBM is currently discussing with authorities how many of the mega projects in Egypt could benefit from their technologies, according to Amr Talaat, general manager of IBM Egypt.
After earning a bachelor's degree in IT management, and a diploma in management from AUC, he was lucky to get into a full IT engineering scholarship program at IBM Egypt.
Cloud computing activity in Egypt will grow by at least 50% over the next year, predicted IBM Egypt CEO Amr Talaat at the launch of the second phase of an IBM initiative carried out in cooperation with the Information Technology Industry Development Agency (ITIDA).
External relations manager at P&G Ramez Farag, corporate responsibility manager at PwC Ayman Shehata and corporate citizenship manager at IBM Egypt Mona Arishi have seen the initiative through for three years.