Ibn Saud


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Saud, Ibn:

see Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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.

Ibn Saud

(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) (ĭ`bən säo͞od`), c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 26,419,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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 and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the NejdNejd
or Najd
, region, central Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, the country's capital and major city, is located there. The Nejd is a vast plateau from 2,500 to 5,000 ft (762–1,524 m) high.
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, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox WahhabiWahhabi
or Wahabi
, reform movement in Islam, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.
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 movement in Islam. During Ibn Saud's youth the Saud family was in exile in Kuwait. In 1902 he and a small party of relatives and servants recaptured Riyadh. By 1912 he had completed the conquest of the Nejd and organized a well-trained army. During World War I the British made slight efforts to cultivate Ibn Saud's friendship but favored his rival, Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali
, 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the Hejaz under the Ottoman Empire.
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 of the HejazHejaz
or Hedjaz
, region, c.150,000 sq mi (388,500 sq km), NW Saudi Arabia, on the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Mecca is the chief city. Extending S to Asir, Hejaz is mainly a dissected highland region lying between the narrow, long coastal strip and the interior
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. In 1924–25, Ibn Saud defeated Husayn and proclaimed himself king of Hejaz and Nejd. After consolidating his power over most of the Arabian peninsula, he changed (1932) the name of his kingdom to Saudi Arabia. He forced many of the nomad tribes to adopt a settled way of life and to abandon their private wars and vendettas. He is credited with suppressing the robbery and extortion that formerly harassed pilgrims to Mecca and Medina. In 1936 and 1939 he granted oil concessions to American companies. The oil deposits of Arabia proved to be among the richest in the world, and Ibn Saud used some of the income derived from them on national improvements. The greater part of his oil revenues, however, was spent on the royal family. During World War II, Ibn Saud remained neutral but favored the Allies. He took only a minor part in the Arab-Israeli war of 1948. He was succeeded by Prince SaudSaud
(Saud bin Abd al-Aziz al-Saud) , 1902–69, king of Saudi Arabia (1953–64), son of Ibn Saud, brother of Faisal. Saud, who had distinguished himself in several of his father's early campaigns, became viceroy of Nejd in 1926 and heir apparent in 1933.
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, his eldest son.

Bibliography

See H. S. J. Philby, Arabian Jubilee (1953) and D. A. Howarth, The Desert King (1967).

References in periodicals archive ?
The 200,000-strong National Guard (NG) is a crucial force from the most powerful tribes of the Arabian Peninsula founded by King Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud and dedicated to protecting the royal family as well as defending the kingdom's petroleum sector and the other vital sectors.
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Since coming to the Saudi throne in 2005, however, King Abdullah has been modernising Wahhabism under a programme of gradual reforms which will be pursued by his successors, beginning with Crown Prince Salman who now is the defence minister and one of the brightest sons of King Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud - founder of the third Saudi dynasty.
That is according to student Najla Al-Otaibi, who spoke at the 15th Arab Creative Students (ACS) forum at the Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU) last week.
The succession in Saudi Arabia passes among the sons of former King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, who set up the kingdom during his 21-year long reign.
The most likely candidate to take the position to succeed the 89-year-old king is Prince Salman, 76, and like all former kings a son of Saudi Arabia's founder Abdulaziz ibn Saud.
Nayef's father King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, over the course of the preceding 30 years of warfare and diplomacy, had united the Bedouin tribes behind his vision of a pure Islamic state.
Prince Salman, who was born in 1935, is one of the remaining sons of Saudi Arabia's founder, King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, and has been seen as the man next-in-line to rule the kingdom after Crown Prince Nayef, who was made heir to King Abdullah last week.
With a dwindling number of sons of Ibn Saud, the founder, who are alive or fit to rule, an era is coming to an end in Saudi Arabia, argued AL AKHBAR, the leftist Lebanese daily, in an analysis piece published on October 24.
The Council included the surviving royal princes of the 43 sons of Ibn Saud, the Kingdom's founder, and the sons of their deceased brothers - for example, the late King Faisal's brood.