Ibn al-Haytham


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Ibn al-Haytham

(ĭb`ən äl-hīth-äm`) or

Alhazen

(ălhəzĕn`), 965–c.1040, Arab mathematician. Ibn al-Haytham was born in Basra, but made his career in Cairo, where he supported himself copying scientific manuscripts. Among his original works, only those on optics, astronomy, and mathematics survive. His Optics, which relied on experiment rather than on past authority, introduced the idea that light rays emanate in straight lines in all directions from every point on a luminous surface. Latin editions of the Optics, available from the 13th cent. on, influenced Kepler and Descartes. As a cosmologist, al-Haytham tried to find mechanisms by which the heavenly bodies might be shown to follow the paths determined by Ptolemaic mathematics. In mathematics, al-Haytham elucidated and extended Euclid's Elements and suggested a proof of the parallel postulate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dr al-Mannai said: "As Unesco declared 2015 to be International Year of Light, the Muhammad Bin Hamad Al-Thani Centre wanted to recognise the work of Ibn al-Haytham, one of the earliest and most researched scientists to study the characteristics of light and optical science.
The Hierarchy of Being' is ultimately a celebration of the achievements of two Arab Muslim scientists, Ibn Al-Haytham and Al-Jazari, who were both active during the peak of the Golden Age and this project synthesises their advances in the fields of optics and kinetic motion while bringing my own photographic and technological practice into the work.
Several well-known Muslim scholars are discussed, including Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Ibn al-Haytham (who is missing from the index), Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Sind, al-Khwarizmi, al-Kindi, and al-RAzi, but there are also articles dealing with textual genres, schools of thought, institutions, particular sciences, and specific texts.
My colleague has now done just that," says Ibn al-Haytham.
Ibn al-Haytham in Egypt During his time as mayor of Basra, the Fatimid rival caliph in Egypt al-Hakim (the Fatimids were Ismaili Shias who rejected the caliphate of the Sunni Abbasids in Iraq) heard of an idea that Ibn al-Haytham had to dam the Nile.
The activities and attractions include an interactive book expo, an exhibition of inventions and the camera obscura of Ibn al-Haytham.
This was followed by a visit to the energy conservation pavilion before he was taken to the Ibn al-Haytham gallery.
Ibn Ridwan's copy of Ibn al-Haytham's work, lacking as it does any record of teaching and licensing, is no more than the work of a scribe (we should note also that Ibn al-Haytham was an older contemporary of Ibn Ridwan and like him in Cairo; the biographers would find it odd that there is no such license in such fortuitous circumstances).
The paper presents extracts from from three astronomical Latin texts of the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries that suggest planetary models identical to those of of Ibn al-Haytham (73).
Alhacen's Latin translation differs considerably from the original Arabic Kitab al-Manazir by Ibn al-Haytham, but it was the Latin that was the most important text on optics through the Middle Ages, so an edition and English translation of that is much more useful to historians of science and historians in general.
In Europe, Ibn al-Haytham was well known, as were his ideas about science and philosophy.