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(both: īdyo͞omē`ə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to EsauEsau
[Heb.,=hairy], in the Bible, son of Isaac, who sold his birthright to his younger twin, Jacob, for lentil stew and who was tricked by Jacob out of his father's blessing. Also known as Edom [Heb.,=ruddy], the disinherited Esau settled on Mt.
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, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. HerodHerod,
dynasty reigning in Palestine at the time of Jesus. As a dynasty the Herods depended largely on the power of Rome. They are usually blamed for the state of virtual anarchy in Palestine at the beginning of the Christian era.

Antipater (fl. c.65 B.C.
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 the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.



(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

References in periodicals archive ?
A famous historian, writer and lawyer, Otto von Rutenberg (1802-1864), in his history of the Baltic Sea provinces Estonia, Livonia and Courland, argued that in the 13th century the Order of the Brothers of the Sword received the province of Sackala, and the bishop got the provinces of Idumea and Metsepole between the River Gauja and Parnu (Rutenberg 1859 : I, 67).
Upon his return to England, he set about turning these images into paintings and a splendid multi-volume book, The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia (1842- 1846), whose remarkable lithographs were hand-colored and produced with the help of his Belgian colleague, Louis Haghe.
With exquisite timing, the hand-coloured lithographs appear in three books recording sites in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea (Edom - the home of a Semitic-speaking tribal group comprising part of the Negev Desert and the Arabah valley at the southern end of the Dead Sea, plus adjacent land in what is now ordan), Arabia, Egypt and Nubia by the Scottish painter David Roberts - a kind of photo-journalist of his day - who visited the Middle East in 1838/9.
This may refer to a temple to YHWH in Idumea that may have employed animal sacrifice.