Edom

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Related to Idumean: Edom, Idumaeans

Edom

(ē`dŏm),

Idumaea,

or

Idumea

(both: īdyo͞omē`ə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to EsauEsau
[Heb.,=hairy], in the Bible, son of Isaac, who sold his birthright to his younger twin, Jacob, for lentil stew and who was tricked by Jacob out of his father's blessing. Also known as Edom [Heb.,=ruddy], the disinherited Esau settled on Mt.
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, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. HerodHerod,
dynasty reigning in Palestine at the time of Jesus. As a dynasty the Herods depended largely on the power of Rome. They are usually blamed for the state of virtual anarchy in Palestine at the beginning of the Christian era.

Antipater (fl. c.65 B.C.
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 the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.

Edom

 

(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

References in periodicals archive ?
He cleared the decks, so to speak, by executing the remaining male Maccabeans, as well as his second wife because she was Idumean.
The Jews know full well that their King Herod is Idumean, not of the line of David.
Hasmoneans and ultimately to Herod, of Idumean descent, ascending the throne of Israel through his Roman protectors' favor, with very unpleasant and unJewish consequences.
But this was little more than court flattery, and suspicions were rampant that Herod, 'a commoner, an Idumean and a half-Jew', was not fit to be king.
From his sources, Eusebius knew that Herod was foreign-born, either an Idumean or an Ashkelonite.
In the final essay Kloner analyzes archaeological and epigraphic evidence from the Idumean site of Maresha, interpreting the social and religious life of the inhabitants in the Persian and Hellenistic periods.
The last analysis describes in brief how, while the buyers had mostly Yahwistic and West Semitic names, the sellers were more diverse (there being only one Yahwistic name, plus an Idumean name, a Persian name, a possible Egyptian name), while the slaves themselves also mostly attest Yahwistic names.
on an Idumean ostracon probably from Khirbet el Kom/Makkedah, about halfway between Lachish and Hebron.
In the land of Israel, he notes, conversion was not always a matter of choice: Under the Hasmonean kings, particularly Johann Hyrcanus (134-104 BCE), the Idumeans were forced to be circumcised and live like Judeans or leave the country.
It was at this time that the institution of conversion first made its appearance in a Jewish context; the Hasmoneans forced conversion upon the Idumeans in the south and the Itureans in the north.
Sifre Zutta Parashat Para', Tarbiz 1/1 (1929), 46-78 (70): folio 4 recto, line 17) makes the Idumeans disciples of the House of Shammai; cf.