Igbo


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Igbo

(ĭg`bō) or

Ibo

(ē`bō), one of the largest ethnic groups in Nigeria, deriving mainly from SE Nigeria, numbering around 15 million. Originally settled in many autonomous villages, the Igbo nevertheless had a sense of cultural unity and the ability to unite for political action. They were receptive to Christianity and education under British colonialism and missionary influence. The Igbo became heavily represented in professional, managerial, technical, and commercial occupations, and many migrated to other regions of Nigeria. They played a major role in securing Nigerian independence from Britain in 1960. During the political conflict in 1966, thousands of Igbo immigrants were killed in the northern region, home of the Muslim Hausa and Fulani. Many Igbo fled to their eastern homeland, which seceded from Nigeria in 1967, calling itself the Republic of Biafra. Civil war followed, and, by 1970, Biafra was defeated.

Bibliography

See G. Basden, Among the Igbos of Nigeria (1921, repr. 1966); A. C. Smock, Igbo Politics (1971); S. Ottenberg, Boyhood Rituals in an African Society (1988).

Igbo

(dreams)

The universe of the Igbo, a southeastern Nigerian people, is conceptualized into three broad categories through certain metaphors and myths: Elu lgwe, the sky, which is inhabited by the supreme deity Chiukwu; Ala Mmuo, the land where reside numerous spirit beings which are either back from their sojourn on the earth or awaiting their turn to begin a new travel in the world of living men—and where are also found the revered ancestors, and Ala Mmadu, land of the living, where spirits are invisible to man.

Considerable and continuous contact exists between humans and spirits. Chiukwu keeps in touch with humans and their affairs through the chi, the spiritual entity embodied in a person’s identity from before birth, which journeys with him or her through life. In Igbo thought each person’s life is predestined through the agency of the chi, although this destiny can be modified by the ikenga, the personification of each individual’s right hand, representing the power to achieve.

A study by Robert LeVine published in 1966 examined achievement motivation among the Igbo. LeVine analyzed private dreams of personal success as a means of identifying underlying cultural values of achievement motivation. In addition to being a consequence of achievement motivation, dreams, omens, and prophecy are seen in Igbo society as the principal demonstration of extra-human powers in the candidacy for religious office. When the Igbo determine succession to religious office, dreams and the use of dream narratives are sometimes thought to be a manifestation both of the agency of the spiritual entity behind the office and of the candidate’s chi.

Dreams are perceived as a means for divine messages, and the role of divination in the succession process is regarded as a means of both interpreting and validating the message of a dream. Usually, the messenger who appears in the dream is either the previous tenant of the office or a manifestation of the spirit to the service of whom the office is devoted. In some cases, the first type of messenger appears in an initial dream, and in a following dream the message is strengthened by the appearance of the other type. The chief mode of communication is always through the physical placement, by the messenger, of the symbols of office in the hands of the dreamer, and in many cases this act is reinforced by a voice telling the dreamer that he has been chosen for office.

Ibo

, Igbo
1. a member of a Negroid people of W Africa, living chiefly in S Nigeria
2. the language of this people, belonging to the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family: one of the chief literary and cultural languages of S Nigeria
References in periodicals archive ?
Most patients who manifested with PNS used traditional healers and faith healers as their first treatment options, and they also had longer DUPs; this may be explained by the cultural belief of the Igbos in agwu, which is characterised by oddities of behaviour of insidious onset and attributed to the malevolent activities of deities on an individual who has refused to serve the deities.
There is also the nagging absence of what the Igbo call igba-izu (29) or consultation that ensures in traditional Igbo-African democracy that no one is left disgruntled.
Igbo studies has developed through five remarkable stages and entered the sixth today.
It then becomes entirely plausible that the whirlwind relationship between Sam, Ikem and Chris, at one level of representation, parodies the tumultuous relationship between the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa/Fulani, whose tenuous union within post-independence Nigeria underlines the many recurring political fractures and splits that continue to dog Nigeria, and that are allegorised in AOTS.
Even though 63% of the reported IGBOs resulted in no harm, 17% resulted in death, 14% in disability and 6% had an unknown outcome.
As the Igbo, the large Nigerian ethnic group to which both he and I belong, would say: Oke osisi adago (a great tree has fallen).
The Yoruba connect to other gods--orishas (very many of them)--through their spirits in an ultimate quest to link up to their creator, Olorun, while holding the same view of inseparability of the presence of spirit forces amongst the living as the Igbo believe.
Yet Adichie also complicates this indictment through parallel critiques of Igbo culture and through contrasting characters whose own beliefs manifest the proliferated possibilities of a secular age: no repudiation of Igbo culture or of Christianity, but a dynamic process of critique and embrace.
The Igbo have unique cultural traits some of which are embedded in their basic beliefs and worldview and can be said to form the core of their existence.
For example, Yoruba is spoken in six states, Igbo in four states, Annang, Efik and Ibibio in two states while Hausa is spoken across all the states in the North.
Korieh provides a thorough analysis of agriculture and its evolution in the Igbo society of Eastern Nigeria.
It will be shown that, although Achebe has used a lot of Igbo expressions and cultural practices in his novel Makhambeni has not translated any of the Igbo expressions and cultural practices into Zulu.