Igor

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Igor

(ē`gôr, Russ. ē`gər) or

Ihor

(ē`khər), d. 945, duke of Kiev (912–45), successor of OlegOleg
or Oleh
, d. c.912, founder of Kievan Rus. Succeeding his kinsman Rurik as leader of the Varangians at Novgorod, Oleg led forth his retainers to seize Kiev (c.879).
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 as ruler of Kievan RusKievan Rus
, medieval state of the Eastern Slavs. It was the earliest predecessor of modern Ukraine and Russia. Flourishing from the 10th to the 13th cent., it included nearly all of present-day Ukraine and Belarus and part of NW European Russia, extending as far N as Novgorod
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. According to the Russian Primary Chronicle, a medieval history, Igor was the son of RurikRurik
, d. 879, semilegendary Varangian warrior, regarded as the founder of the princely dynasty of Kievan Rus. Rurik and his two brothers, at the head of an armed band, apparently seized Novgorod and nearby districts (c.862).
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, founder of the Russian princely line. Igor's expedition (941) against Constantinople was routed by the Greeks, and in 945 he concluded a new commercial treaty with the Byzantines. He was killed by rebellious Slavic tribespeople while attempting to collect tribute. His wife, St. Olga or Olha, served as regent for their son SviatoslavSviatoslav
or Svyatoslav
, d. 972, duke of Kiev (945–72), son of Igor and of St. Olga. His mother acted as regent for him until c.962, when he came of age.
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 after Igor's death.

Igor

(Igor Sviatoslavich) (ē`gər svyä'təslä`vĭch), 1151–1202, Russian prince. In 1185 he was defeated by the CumansCumans
or Kumans
, nomadic East Turkic people, identified with the Kipchaks (or the western branch of the Kipchaks) and known in Russian as Polovtsi. Coming from NW Asian Russia, they conquered S Russia and Walachia in the 11th cent.
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 in an expedition that was immortalized in the epic Slovo o polku Igoreve (tr. by Vladimir Nabokov, The Song of Igor's Campaign, 1960). The author is unknown, but the date of composition has been established as c.1187. The manuscript was discovered in 1795 in a 16th-century transcript containing many errors in copying. Although its authenticity has been questioned, it is considered the first notable work of Russian literature. It is remarkable for thematic unity and for imagery, particularly descriptions of nature and invocations of pagan magic. The work was used by BorodinBorodin, Aleksandr Porfirevich
, 1833–87, Russian composer, chemist, and physician. He studied at the academy of medicine in St. Petersburg, where he later taught chemistry. He also helped found a school of medicine for women.
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 for his opera Prince Igor.

Igor’

 

Date of birth unknown; died 945. Became grand prince of Kiev beginning in 912 (according to the chronicler, Igor’ was descended from the semilegendary Riurik). During his rule Igor’ continued the work of his predecessor, Oleg; he brought the eastern Slavic tribes between the Dnestr and the Danube under his control and crushed the Drevlianian uprising. In 941 he waged an unsuccessful campaign against Constantinople; during the campaign of 944 the Byzantine government made an offer of rich presents in exchange for peace, leading to the signing of a treaty between the Greeks and the Russians. He was the first of the Russian princes to clash with the Pechenegs (with whom he concluded a truce for five years). Igor’ was killed by the Drev-lianians while attempting to collect additional tribute from them.

REFERENCES

Povest’ Vremennykh let, parts 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Grekov, B. D. Kievskaia Rus”. [Moscow] 1953.