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see HomerHomer,
principal figure of ancient Greek literature; the first European poet. Works, Life, and Legends

Two epic poems are attributed to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
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an ancient Greek epic poem about Ilium (Troy), attributed to Homer.

Contemporary scholarship on ancient Greece and Rome maintains that the Iliad, based on legends from the Cretan and Mycenaean era, originated in the Greek Ionian cities of Asia Minor sometime during the ninth or the eighth century B.C. The poem consists of approximately 15,700 hexameter verses. During the fourth or third century B.C. it was divided into 24 books by the classical philologist Zenodotus of Ephesus.

The Iliad tells of the heroic siege of Troy by an Achaean army, composed of many tribes and headed by the Mycenaean leader Agamemnon. Among the epic’s principal heroes are Achilles, Menelaus, and Hector.

In the undifferentiated state of its epic consciousness, the Iliad represents the world as an integral, commensurate, and qualitatively uniform entity. Therefore, in antiquity the Iliad was considered to be of unsurpassed artistic and historical value as a compendium of knowledge and as a source of philosophy and poetry. Much of the poem’s historical and geographical information has been verified by the archaeological excavations begun by H. Schliemann.

The Iliad has been translated into Russian several times since the end of the 18th century. N. I. Gnedich was the first to translate it using the original meter (1829).


Homeri carmina, vol. 1: Homeri Ilias. Edited by A. Ludwich. Leipzig, 1902–07.
The Iliad, 2nd ed. Edited by W. Leaf. London, 1900–02.
Homeri opera, 2nd ed., vols. 1–2. Edited by D. B. Monro and T. W. Allen. Oxford, 1908.
Homerus Iliade, vols. 1–4. Edited by P. Mazon. Paris, 1937–38.
In Russian translation:
Iliada. Translated by N. I. Gnedich. Moscow, 1960.


Marx, K., and F. Engels. Ob iskusstve, vol. 1. Moscow, 1967.
Tronskii, I. M. “Problemy gomerovskogo eposa.” In Gomer: Iliada. Translated by N. I. Gnedich. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Sakharnyi, N. L. Iliada…. Arkhangel’sk, 1957.
Losev, A. F. Gomer. Moscow, 1960.
Markish, S. Gomer i ego poemy. Moscow, 1962.
Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, U. Die Ilias und Homer, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1920.
Schadewaldt, W. Von Homers Welt und Werk, 2nd ed. Stuttgart, 1951.
Bowra, C. M. Heroic Poetry. London, 1952.


Homer’s epic detailing a few days near the end of the Trojan War. [Gk. Lit.: Iliad]
See: Epic


Homer’s poetic account set during the legendary Trojan war. [Gk. Poetry: The Iliad]
See: War


(language, real-time)
A real-time language.

["On the Design of a Language for Programming Real-Time Concurrent Processes", H.A. Schutz, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-5(3):248-255, May 1979].
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