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(also Iloki), a people living primarily on the western coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines, as well as in the valley of the Cagayan River and the coastal regions of the island of Mindanao. Some Ilokano live outside the Philippines—in the Hawaiian Islands, on the island of Guam, and in California. The Ilokano number about 4.5 million (1970, estimate). Their language belongs to the Indonesian language group. They profess Christianity (Catholicism and Aglipayanism, a local Protestant doctrine), but vestiges of their pre-Christian beliefs remain. The principal occupation is agriculture aided by irrigation (rice, corn, yams, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, and other crops); the Ilokano also raise buffalo, swine, and chickens. Handicrafts developed by the Ilokano include cotton quilting and making articles from gold, shell, and ebony.