Immune Serum


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Related to Immune Serum: immune serum globulin

immune serum

[i′myün ‚sir·əm]
(immunology)
Blood serum obtained from an immunized individual and carrying antibodies.

Serum, Immune

 

a preparation made from animal or human blood and containing antibodies against the causative agents of infectious diseases or the products of the agents’ activity. Immune serum is used in serodiagnosis, seroprophylaxis, and serotherapy. In preparing immune serum, blood serum is taken from animals, human donors, or convalescents that have been immunized by specific antigens against a particular disease. The blood serum is processed in various ways, depending on the type of immune serum and its intended purpose: it is purified to remove neutral substances and isolate the active (chiefly globulin) protein fractions and is then concentrated.

The introduction of immune serum from animal blood into the human body may cause such complications as serum sickness and anaphylactic shock. These complications are almost never caused by concentrated immune serums from human blood, called gamma globulins, or, more precisely, immunoglobulins, since they retain the various globulin fractions. Such concentrated serums are retained in the body longer than other serums.

Immune serums may be therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic. The therapeutic and prophylactic serums are subdivided into antitoxic, antibacterial, and antiviral serums. Antitoxic serums combat the toxic metabolites of microbes; examples are antitetanic, antidiphtheric, and antigangrenous serums. The antitoxic serums also combat the aftereffects of the bites of poisonous snakes and insects. Antibacterial serums, such as antianthrax gamma globulin, combat microorganisms. Antiviral serums contain gamma globulins that provide immunity against measles and influenza; antirabies serum combats the effects of rabies. Diagnostic immune serums are made from different antigens, depending on the nature of the reaction for which they are used. They are used to identify the causative agents of infectious diseases and in experiments.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodslvo po mikrobiologii, klinike i epidemiologii infektsionnykh boleznei, vol. 3. Leningrad [1964].
Prakticheskaia immunologiia. Moscow 1969.
V. L. VASILEVSKII
Immune serums used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in animals are obtained from animals that have been immunized with chemically treated antigens. Such serums include antianthrax serum, Aujeszky’s disease serum, swine erysipelas serum, lamb dysenteric serum, trivalent serum against hemorrhagic septicemia, and antitoxic serums against salmonellosis and colibacillosis. Veterinary laboratories use diagnostic immune serums to identify the causative agents of such infectious diseases of animals as anthrax, brucellosis, salmonellosis, listeriosis, and leptospirosis.

REFERENCES

Biologicheskie i khimioterapevticheskie veterinarnye preparaty. Moscow, 1963.
Veterinarnoe zakonodatel’stvo, vol. 1. Moscow, 1972. Pages 612–30,

O. A. POLIAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
To that end, we diluted the anti-C 131-150 immune serum in whole nonimmune serum, mimicking a weak antibody concentration in a complex medium.
The study, published in the January Infection and Immunity, a monthly journal of the American Society for Microbiology, observed that hamsters injected with an immune serum did not develop arthritis, one of the primary side effects of Lyme disease, when infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes the disease.
A neutralization test (Lim-Benyesh-Melnick immune serum pools) identified EV13 in 135 (25%) specimens.
We report the results of studies evaluating the efficacy of the killed veterinary vaccine, a live attenuated chimeric virus candidate, and passive immunization with immune serum for preventing WNV encephalitis in a hamster model of the disease (5,6).
Animals that received immune serum providing a titer [greater than or equal to] 1:200 were fully protected.