immunosuppressive drug

(redirected from Immunosuppressive medications)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

immunosuppressive drug,

any of a variety of substances used to prevent production of antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
..... Click the link for more information.
. They are commonly used to prevent rejection by a recipient's body of an organ transplanted from a donor. A transplant is rejected when the recipient's immune system acts against it; current methods aim at suppressing the activity of the lymphocytes, the cells that form antibodies (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
..... Click the link for more information.
; transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
..... Click the link for more information.
). The steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
..... Click the link for more information.
, such as cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
..... Click the link for more information.
, which suppress the antibody-forming lymphocyte cells, have been used to prolong human organ transplants. Steroids may also prevent antigens from entering cells and thereby prevent local allergic inflammation reactions. In another immunosuppressive method, human lymphocytes are injected into horses, stimulating the animals to produce antilymphocyte serum. The serum, administered to humans with transplanted organs, in some way inactivates lymphocyte cells. The procedure will not work effectively for more than a few injections of serum. Another group of immunosuppressive drugs act by interfering with the synthesis of nucleic acidsnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and are especially effective against proliferating cells such as stimulated lymphocytes. Some of these are analogs of purines and pyrimidines, substances that are nucleic acid subunits; the purine analog azothioprine has been used to suppress rejection of transplanted human kidneys. Most substances that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis, such as nitrogen mustardnitrogen mustard,
any of various poisonous compounds originally developed for military use (see poison gas). Like mustard gas and lewisite, it is a vesicant (blistering agent).
..... Click the link for more information.
, cyclophosphamide (CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
..... Click the link for more information.
), chloramphenicolchloramphenicol
, antibiotic effective against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stain). It was originally isolated from a species of Streptomyces bacteria.
..... Click the link for more information.
, actinomycinactinomycin
, any one of a group of antibiotics produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycin was the first antibiotic reported to be able to halt cancer; however, it is not widely used to treat cancers because it is highly toxic to humans, interfering with
..... Click the link for more information.
, and colchicinecolchicine
, alkaloid extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum and especially from the corms of the autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale (see meadow saffron).
..... Click the link for more information.
, are not widely used clinically because they are too toxic. Many of the drugs that suppress the function of the immunological system are also used clinically to check growth of cancerous tissue, which is composed of rapidly dividing cells. The drugs currently used to suppress antibody formation also leave an individual susceptible to infection.
References in periodicals archive ?
No change in the form or dosage of immunosuppressive medications was required before surgery, and medications were resumed postoperatively under monitoring by the transplant team.
Whether or not this same signature will identify those kidney transplant recipients still taking immunosuppressive medications who are predisposed to developing tolerance in the future remains unknown," said Newell.
Cost-Effectiveness of Extending Medicare Coverage of Immunosuppressive Medications to the Life of a Kidney Transplant.
PCP following infliximab is increasingly recognized due to a larger number of patients receiving immunosuppressive medications or who have altered immune systems.
Prior to CSA, the only oral immunosuppressive medications were steroids and azathioprine (Imuran[R]).
Kidney transplant recipients must be free of infection at the time of the surgery because the immunosuppressive medications that will be used after surgery will magnify and potentially spread any infection throughout the body, posing a great health hazard.
Kathy Birk and Michael Werner that women with MS who are using immunosuppressive medications get Pap tests twice a year, as abnormal results might be common.
They were excluded if they had a recent exacerbation of their MS, if they had been treated with steroids within the previous 4 weeks, or if they had taken any immunosuppressive medications, interferon-B, or copolymer 1 within the previous 6 months.
Corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppressive medications now have a central role in treating these disorders.
Some of the major forces propelling the market include the unceasing propagation of AIDS, cloud of bioterrorism, revolutionary molecular diagnostic technologies, and wider accessibility of immunosuppressive medications.
Changing immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk, they said, noting that including rapamycin inhibitors in combination therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of developing skin cancers in some transplant patients by more than half.
The management of RPF involves urgent attention to obstructing organs such as ureters requiring stenting and surgery for obstructive bowel or vascular structures and immunosuppressive medications.