Immunotherapy

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Related to Immunotherapeutics: adoptive immunotherapy, immunotherapies

Immunotherapy

The treatment of cancer by improving the ability of a tumor-bearing individual (the host) to reject the tumor immunologically. There are molecules on the surface of tumor cells, and perhaps in their interior, that are recognized as different from normal structures by the immune system and thus generate an immune response. The two components of the immune response are cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity, which must work in concert to overcome tumor cells. One type of thymus-derived lymphocyte (also called a cytotoxic T cell) can destroy tumor cells directly, while another recruits other white blood cells, the macrophages, that do the killing. Natural killer cells and perhaps other white blood cells may also participate. However, elements that normally regulate immunity, such as suppressor T cells, are stimulated excessively by the tumor, which leads to an immune response that is deficient and unable to reject the growing tumor. Thus the strategy of immunotherapy is to stimulate within or transfer to the tumor-bearing individual the appropriate antitumor elements while avoiding further stimulation of suppressor elements. See Cellular immunology, Immunologic cytotoxicity, Immunosuppression

There are four broad categories of immunotherapy: active, adoptive, restorative, and passive. Active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the host's intrinsic immune response to the tumor, either nonspecifically or specifically. Nonspecific active immunotherapy utilizes materials that have no apparent antigenic relationship to the tumor, but have modulatory effects on the immune system, stimulating macrophages, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Specific active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate specific antitumor responses with tumor-associated antigens as the immunizing materials. Adoptive immunotherapy involves the transfer of immunologically competent white blood cells or their precursors into the host. Bone marrow transplantation, while performed principally for the replacement of hematopoietic stem cells, can also be viewed as adoptive immunotherapy. Restorative immunotherapy comprises the direct and indirect restoration of deficient immunological function through any means other than the direct transfer of cells. Passive immunotherapy means the transfer of antibodies to tumor-bearing recipients. This approach has been made feasible by the development of hybridoma technology, which now permits the production of large quantities of monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigenic determinant on tumor cells. See Genetic engineering, Immunology, Monoclonal antibodies

Immunotherapy

 

a branch of practical immunology concerned with the treatment of infectious diseases through the use of immunological preparations, such as vaccines, immune sera, and gamma globulins.

Sera and gamma globulins are used for acute types of disease, such as diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and cerebrospinal meningitis. Vaccines are injected for protracted, sluggish, and chronic forms of infection, such as dysentery, brucellosis, and tularemia. Immunotherapy is combined with antibiotics and chemotherapy.

In veterinary medicine, infectious diseases are treated by injecting affected animals with therapeutic sera and bacteriophages. When injected with therapeutic serum or the gamma globulin obtained from it the animal receives, in ready form, protective substances (antibodies) against the causative agent of the disease or its toxin.

immunotherapy

[¦im·yə·nō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Therapy utilizing immunosuppressives.
References in periodicals archive ?
Immunotherapeutics field is rapidly advancing at an unprecedented rate, as estimated by IQ4I Research that the immunotherapeutics global market is expected to reach $138.
This report Engineered TCR and CAR Immunotherapeutics 2015: A comparative analysis of the landscape of and business opportunities with TCR and CAR antibodies, T cells, NK cells, TILs, DLIs & DLIs as of March 2015 brings you up-to-date regarding key players, key technologies, TCR and CAR immunotherapeutic projects, business deals and private and public financing rounds.
Rotarix[R] is an oral, two-dose, live attenuated vaccine against rotavirus disease in infants that was licensed in 1997 by AVANT Immunotherapeutics to GSK for worldwide commercialization.
In the long term, these efforts will form a basis for the rational design of pathogen- or class-specific immunotherapeutics, as well as adjuvants that will enhance the future development of vaccines against potential bioweapons.
Corixa is a developer of immunotherapeutics with a commitment to treating and preventing autoimmune diseases, cancer and infectious diseases by understanding and directing the immune system.
Oncology has been a primary area of focus for immunotherapeutics, largely due to the potential offered by this market but also due to the critical role the immune system plays in the proliferation of cancer throughout the body.
Additional information on AVANT Immunotherapeutics, Inc.
March 12, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Annias Immunotherapeutics today announced the online publication in Nature of new clinical results demonstrating a dramatic improvement in survival for patients with lethal Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumors who were treated with an innovative new cancer vaccine and approach to therapy developed by the company's scientific founder and collaborators at Duke Cancer Institute.
Under the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) the NCI and BN ImmunoTherapeutics will jointly develop new immunotherapies for the treatment of prostate cancer.
May 21 /PRNewswire/ -- Celldex Therapeutics (a wholly-owned subsidiary of AVANT Immunotherapeutics, Nasdaq: AVAN) announced today it has received Federal Trade Commission approval under the Hart-Scott Rodino (HSR) Act, clearing AVANT's proposal to award Pfizer exclusive rights to CDX-110, an investigational vaccine currently under development.
President and Chief Executive Officer of AVANT Immunotherapeutics, Inc.