Indira Gandhi

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Gandhi, Indira

(ĭndē`rə gän`dē), 1917–84, Indian political leader; daughter of Jawaharlal NehruNehru, Jawaharlal
, 1889–1964, Indian statesman, b. Allahabad; son of Motilal Nehru. A politician and statesman of great skill, Nehru was enormously popular in India.
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. She served as an aide to her father, who was prime minister (1947–64), and as minister of information in the government of Shri Lal Bahadur ShastriShastri, Shri Lal Bahadur
, 1904–66, Indian political leader. He joined Mohandas Gandhi's noncooperation movement in 1921 and studied at the nationalist Kashi Vidyapeth school, where he was given the title Shastri [learned in the scriptures].
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 (1964–66). On Shastri's death in 1966, she succeeded as prime minister. Her first administration, marked by her increasing personal control of the Indian National Congress party, led to a party split. Her faction, New Congress, won overwhelming electoral victories in 1971 and 1972. She triumphed in foreign affairs with India's 1971 defeat of Pakistan, which resulted in the establishment of the state of Bangladesh. Found guilty in June, 1975, of illegal practices during the 1971 campaign, she refused to resign, declaring a state of emergency. Her administration arrested opponents and imposed press censorship. In November the Supreme Court overruled her conviction. In 1977 her faction in the Congress party lost the parliamentary elections; she lost both her seat and her position as prime minister. In 1980, she again became prime minister, this time as leader of the Congress (Indira) party, and held the office until assassinated by her security guards in 1984. Her son Rajiv GandhiGandhi, Rajiv
, 1944–91, prime minister of India (1984–89). Oldest son of Indira Gandhi, he flew for Indian Airlines until his brother died in 1981 and he was drafted into politics by his mother.
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 succeeded her as prime minister.

Bibliography

See biographies by K. Bhatia (1974) and D. Moraes (1980); T. Ali, Nehru and the Gandhis, (1985); I. Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend, 1950–1984 (1985).

Gandhi, Indira

 

Born Nov. 19, 1917, in Allahabad, India. Indian political and government figure; daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru.

Gandhi received her education in Swiss, English, and Indian schools. She joined the Indian National Congress Party in 1938. In 1942 she married one of the leading members of the Congress Party, the publisher F. Gandhi. She was active in the struggle against English colonial hegemony and was subjected to repression by the colonial authorities. After India won its independence in 1947, she held an important position in the Congress Party, which had become the ruling party. In 1955 she became a member of the Working Committee and the Central Electoral Board of the Congress Party, president of its women’s organization, and a member of the Central Parliamentary Council of the party’s All-India Committee. In 1959 and 1960 she was president of the Congress Party. In 1964 she joined the government of L. B. Shastri as minister for information and broadcasting, and in July of the same year she became a member of the National Defense Council.

On Jan. 19, 1966, after Shastri’s death, she was elected to lead the parliamentary wing of the Congress Party, and in accordance with tradition, as the leader of that wing she became prime minister. In 1967, in addition to being prime minister, she held the posts of minister of atomic energy, chairman of the planning commission, and minister of foreign affairs. In her pronouncements as head of state Gandhi has repeatedly emphasized the necessity of continuing the basic principles of Nehru’s policies: India’s nonparticipation in military blocs, support of peace and international cooperation, continued development and strengthening of friendly Soviet-Indian relations, and fulfillment of the planned development of the national economy. In 1969 and 1970, despite the opposition of reactionary forces, she nationalized the 14 largest banks. She has spoken out against US aggression in Vietnam and Israeli aggression against the Arab countries. In the 1971 elections she was again made prime minister; she also holds the posts of minister of internal affairs, minister of atomic energy and electronics, and minister of Space Research (1974).

References in periodicals archive ?
Norulhaq Yousafzai, Chief of Indira Ghandi Children's Hospital, said that while 944 patients were admitted with symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea in April, 4,436 children were treated for those symptoms in June.
65), drawing in part on Bhagwati (1993), observes that: 'If the reform program adopted by Indira Ghandi were 'reform by stealth', and those by Rajiv Ghandi "reform by reluctance", then those by Prime Minister Narasimha Rao and his Finance Minister Manmohan Singh following the "1991 Crisis" were "reform by storm".
Time Line: 1984-1993 1984: Indira Ghandi assassinated 1985: Titanic wreckage discovered 1986: Space shuttle Challenger explodes 1987: NWA Flight 255 crashes in Detroit 1988: George H.
Pointing to Margaret Thatcher or Indira Ghandi as examples of women's empowerment is similarly problematic.
India's Indira Ghandi International Airport was closed for about seven hours on 9 January due to dense fog causing poor visibility.
1984: Assassination of Indian Prime Minister Mrs Indira Ghandi.
Hercules proudly showed us aged black and white pictures of his father greeting Princess Mary (the Queen's aunt), various Kuwaiti princes, and Indira Ghandi.
Or Indira Ghandi, Golda Meir, those women who followed, and yes, more remarkable than Margaret Thatcher?
The authors roundly place blame with the government of Indira Ghandi, which during the 1970s increasingly used authoritarian measures to retain its Congress Party's power, and, when the situation became more desperate, eventually began appeals to the Hindu right wing by using Hindu rituals at state functions and Hindu symbols at political rallies.
Eleanor Roosevelt, Golda Meir, Indira Ghandi, and Margaret Mead became attractive with age.
Indira Ghandi studied it, asked about my inspiration for the work and was very complimentary.
Shakti Naam is considered an anti-aging, disease defying practice for this age, which has its roots in a powerful form of yoga also utilized by two prime ministers of India, Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Ghandi.

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