Indonesian Languages

Indonesian Languages

 

a branch of the Austronesian (or Malayo-Polynesian) language family, spoken in the Philippines, Taiwan, the Greater and Lesser Sunda islands, the Moluccas, the Malacca Peninsula, and certain regions of South Vietnam and the island of Madagascar.

The Indonesian languages have been insufficiently studied, which makes difficult a scientifically well-grounded classification. Preliminary classifications subdivide them into eight groups (the French scholar G. Ferrand) or 16 groups (the Dutch scholar J. Gonda). The most widespread are Indonesian, the official language of Indonesia; Malay, the official language of the Federation of Malaysia; Javanese (the island of Java); Sundanese (southwestern part of the island of Java); Tagalog, the official language of the Republic of the Philippines; and Malagasy, the official language of the Malagasy Republic on the island of Madagascar.

Typologically, the Indonesian languages are of the stemisolating prefixal-suffixal type. The system of vowel phonemes is highly uniform and is characterized by the presence of monophthongs and diphthongs. The number of consonant phonemes varies considerably according to the individual languages (for example, the absence of [f] and [v] in many of the Philippine languages and the presence of the retroflexes [t] and [d] in Javanese). Nevertheless, regular phonetic correspondences exist among individual languages and groups of languages. Syllables are mainly open in these languages.

In morphology, the parts of speech are weakly differentiated and cannot be isolated on the basis of criteria developed for the Indo-European languages. Various criteria for isolating the parts of speech in the Indonesian languages have been proposed by the French scholars P. Favre and A. Marre de Marin, the Dutch scholars H. Tendeloo and E. Uhlenbeck, and the Soviet scholar A. S. Teselkin. Soviet scholars distinguish in the languages nouns, pronouns, numerals, predicatives (including process words and qualitative words), syntactic words, and interjections. The vocabulary is etymologically rather uniform and is replenished through the formation of new words by means of affixations (prefixes, infixes, suffixes, and confixes), gemination of root morphemes, compounding and borrowing of new words from Sanskrit, Arabic, Dutch, French, English, and other languages. All Indonesian languages use Latin-based alphabets. A voluminous fiction literature exists in these languages.

REFERENCE

Arakin, V. D. Indoneziiskie iazyki. Moscow, 1965.

V. D. ARAKTN

References in periodicals archive ?
Because of the sources used for the book, the entries rather centre on Javanese and other main Indonesian languages as Sundanese, Balinese, Minangkabau and Jakartanese, next to Arabic, Dutch, Chinese, and Sanskrit.
The interlocutors have agreed to increase cooperation between the educational facilities of the two countries on the exchange of students and studying Ukrainian and Indonesian languages.
Hence, the languages in the Philippine islands are older than the Indonesian languages.
The OIC had made special arrangements for the multi-lingual translation of President's speech mainly in English, Arabic and Indonesian languages, for the auditory consumption of the leaders from 49 countries attending the Summit.
Notably, jawi also added a few letters to the common Arabic script to transcribe common sounds in Indonesian languages, such as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for /p/, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for /n/ ('ng' in English), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for /n/ ('ny' in English), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for /t[integral]/ ('ch' in English) and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for /g/.
Makassar language is one of the clumps of Indonesian languages and classified as Oceania language which is under the Austronesian family.
It is available in English, Arabic and Indonesian languages.
The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah Ibn Abdulaziz Al Saud has issued an order to provide a number of bodies at home and abroad with 377,258 copies of the Holy Quran and its translations into English, Urdu, French, Filipino, Malibarian, German, Russian, Chinese, Korean, and Indonesian languages from King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an in Madinah.
Unlike a number of important regional Indonesian languages (e.
Matsuno is a specialist in Indonesian languages and Tetum, a local dialect of East Timor.
Local Indonesian languages including Javanese, find themselves in a curious position.
The Javanese and Indonesian languages are both famous, Javanese for its extravagantly elaborate speech levels, Indonesian for its extraordinary success as a national language imposed upon, or more accurately, taken up by, an extremely polyglot nation.

Full browser ?