Industrial Crop


Also found in: Wikipedia.

industrial crop

[in′dəs·trē·əl ¦kräp]
(agriculture)
Any crop that provides materials for industrial processes and products such as soybeans, cotton (lint and seed), flax, and tobacco.

Industrial Crop

 

a cultivated plant that is used as raw material by any one of various branches of industry. They are divided into several groups according to the product obtained. Starch-bearing crops, which contain starch in their tubers, include potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams. Sugar-bearing plants contain sugar in their stems (sugarcane, sugar maple), roots (sugar beet), or flowers (gomutiand wine palms). Oil crops—plants in whose seeds and fruits vegetable oils accumulate—include the sunflower, peanut, soybean, castor-oil plant, rape, sesame, mustard, oil flax, coconut palm, African oil palm, olive, and tung. In essential-oil crops, essential oils accumulate in the aboveground shoots (mint, geranium, East Indian basil), flowers (essential-oil rose, lavender, tuberose, lilac), fruits (coriander, anise, fennel), or roots and rootstocks (vetiver, iris). Textile crops, including bast crops, contain textile fibers in their stems (common flax, jute, ambary, hemp), leaves (New Zealand flax), seeds (cotton), or fruits (ceiba).

Other important groups of industrial crops include those that yield rubber (hevea, guayule), gutta-percha (spindle tree, Eucommia, Palaquium, Payena), tannins (smoke tree, Siberian tea, some species of oak, spruce, larch), dyes (madder, woad, Japanese pagoda tree, saffron, safflower, some species of Indigofera), medicinal substances (valerian, foxglove, belladonna, cinchona, ginseng), narcotics (tobacco, Indian tobacco, jute, opium poppy), and cork (cork tree, cork oak). Other important industrial crops are hops and teasel.

Some industrial crops have double uses. For example, common flax, hemp, and cotton yield both fiber and fatty oil. Madder and opium poppy have medicinal uses, and coriander, caraway, and anise yield both essential and fatty oils.

Industrial crops include both annuals (flax, potatoes, sunflower, caraway) and perennials (olive, essential-oil rose, hevea, hops, ginseng). They belong to many botanical families, including Solanaceae (potatoes, tobacco), Compositae (sunflower, safflower), Cruciferae (rape, mustard), and Rosaceae (essential-oil rose). Industrial crops grow in various geographic zones: for example, palms, olives, tung trees, and sugarcane are found in tropical and subtropical regions, and sunflowers, flax, and sugar beets are raised principally in middle and temperate latitudes.

Industrial crops grown in the USSR include potatoes, sunflowers, sugar beets, cotton, flax, hemp, tobacco, Indian tobacco, and medicinal plants. They occupied 11.8 million hectares (ha) in 1940,15.3 million ha in 1965, 14.5 million ha in 1970, and 14.7 million ha in 1974.

REFERENCES

See references under OIL PLANTS, BAST CROPS, and DYE PLANTS.
References in periodicals archive ?
To date, 17 states have passed pro-hemp laws or resolutions, including the California Assembly in 1999, when it passed a resolution declaring that "the Legislature should consider action to revise the legal status of industrial hemp to allow for its growth in California as an agricultural and industrial crop.
A desert plant, guayule is a promising, new industrial crop that requires less water than other industrial crops and has multiple economic uses making it attractive to farmers in the arid U.
The research collaboration with Dow AgroSciences complements our industrial crop program which is focused on creating renewable feedstocks using dedicated bioenergy plants.
He is also an ideal board member to assist Yulex in its goal to rapidly expand acreage of a new industrial crop in the desert southwest," said Jeff Martin, Yulex's President and CEO.
The species (Parthenium argentatum) is a new industrial crop and the only species other than the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliansis), now grown predominantly in tropical Southeast Asia, which has been used for the production of natural rubber latex on a commercial scale.
The species (Parthenium argentatum) is a new industrial crop and the only species other than Hevea (the Brazilian rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis) that has been used for latex production on a commercial scale.
The December issue included stories on fuel cell technology, wastewater treatment, cuphea as an industrial crop, biomass production techniques, wheat straw used as a biocomposite, projects tbr sustainable forestry, energy crop research, ethanol funding, and ethanol plant technologies.
The European Commission's own figures show that cultivation of industrial crop accounts for only 4 percent of agricultural land usage in the EU.
If you look up hemp as a topic all you get is the drug mumbo-jumbo and nothing about the industrial crop.
INDIANAPOLIS & WAGENINGEN, Netherlands -- Dow AgroSciences LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW), and the Plant Sciences Group of Wageningen UR (University and Research center) have entered into a research agreement to study how EXZACT[TM] Precision Technology can improve the starch quality of potato, a food and industrial crop of global importance.

Full browser ?