We have selected Speaker 1 as a typical representative of contemporary Ingrians, who clearly opposes the two types of geminates, and measured the duration of segments in the whole set of recorded test words (altogether 174 words).
The present paper reports the results of an acoustic study of geminates in contemporary Soikkola Ingrian.
For more information regarding the dialectal and structural distribution of gemination see (Kettunen 1940; Nahkola 1987; Palander 1987; Paunonen 1973) regarding Finnish dialects; (Kettunen 1930 : 119-122; Viitso 1964) regarding Votic; (ranaxoBa 1979) regarding Ingrian Finnish; (Porkka 1885 : 37-42, JIaaHecT 1966 : 22-30; Laanest 1986 : 57-64) regarding Ingrian; (Tauli 1956 : 142-156; Viitso 2003 : 193 - 194) regarding Estonian; (Posti 1942 : 151-152, 162-163, 174) regarding Livonian.
There are quite few sources of information on Ingrian phonetics and phonology, and there are only two works involving the experimental study of Ingrian speech (Sovijarvi 1944) and (Gordon 2009).
Soikkola, Oredezhi and Hevaha Ingrian developed the following four types of gemination.
Lower Luga Ingrian has only one type of gemination occurring in disyllabic words after a short vowel: rahha 'money:Part' (JIaaHecT 1978 : 122), makkan sleep:Prs1Sg (JaaHecT 1978 : 122).
The relationships between primary and secondary geminates in Ingrian have only been explicitly discussed in (Laanest 1987) and (Gordon 2009).
The difference in durations implies that Soikkola Ingrian has a ternary opposition: single vs.
Laanest s research on Ingrian does not provide any instrumental measurements.
Laanest recognized a ternary opposition for Soikkola Ingrian consonants.
We also owe our thanks to Estonian Baltic Germans, Russians, Ingrians
, Jews, Latvians, and people of many other ethnicities who lived here and who did not spare themselves in the fight for one common Estonia," he added.
Finland, small though it may be, had aspirations toward a Greater Finland, a union encompassing the Ingrians
, Vepsians, and Karelians subdued within the great Soviet Empire.