Ingush


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Ingush

 

(self-designation, Galgai), a people who live in the western regions of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, in the foothills and lowland regions, and also in the gorges of the central part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. Population, 158,000 (1970 census). They speak Ingush. Religious Ingush are Sunnite Muslims.

The Ingush and Chechens, who are closely related in both language and culture, are the native population of Chechen-Ingushetia. The oldest Ingush settlements were located in the mountains, where the Ingush lived in separate tribal groups (communities). The Dzherakh, Feppi (Kisty), Galgai (hence the self-designation of the Ingush), Tsori, and Metskal communities are known. The migration of the Ingush from the mountains to the lowlands began in the 16th and 17th centuries and was particularly intense from the 1830’s to the 1860’s. One of the first Ingush settlements in the lowland was the village of Angush, or Ingush (on the site of the present-day village of Tarskoe in the Tarskoe valley). The general name for the Ingush people came from the village name Angush (Ingush).

The chief occupations of the Ingush are farming (mainly on the plains), cattle raising (primarily in the mountains), and horticulture. Many Ingush are employed in industry. The cultural life of the Ingush underwent radical changes during the years of Soviet power. Illiteracy was eliminated, a national intelligentsia came into being, and theater and literature developed.

In late 1943 and early 1944, because of violation of socialist law, the Ingush were resettled in various regions of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. On Jan. 9, 1957, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree on the restoration of national autonomy of the Ingush people; the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored. The distortions of the Leninist principles of national policy that had been allowed were eliminated. Almost all of the Ingush returned to their native areas, where the conditions were re-created for their overall development.

REFERENCES

Narody Kavkaza, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 375–90. (Bibliography, pp. 570–71.)
Zasedaniia Verkhomogo Soveta SSSR chetvertogo sozyva: Shestaia sessiia(5–12 fevralia 1957). Stenographic record. Moscow, 1957. Pages 576–77, 743–44.

Ingush

 

the language of the Ingush, who live mainly in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR. Ingush belongs to the Nakh group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages; it is close to Chechen. It is spoken by approximately 158,000 people (1970 census). Literary Ingush is based on the spoken language of the lowland Ingush. Ingush had no written form prior to the October Revolution. The alphabet is based on Russian script.

Ingush is characterized by an abundance of consonants (glottal stops—glottalized, laryngeals, and pharyngeals) and vowels. The grammatical structure of Ingush is characterized by the presence of a category of grammatical classes and an ergative construction and by the absence of conjugation. Six grammatical classes are distinguished. Declension is of the multicase type. Verbs are inflected for tense, mood, aspect, number, and grammatical class. Ingush has many lexical borrowings from Russian and, through Russian, from other languages, as well as from Arabic, Persian, and Turkic languages.

REFERENCES

Mal’sagov, Z. K. Grammatika ingushskogo iazyka, 2nd ed. Groznyi, 1963.
Dolakova, R. I. “Ingushskii iazyk.” In the collection Iazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 4. Moscow, 1967.

IU. D. DESHERIEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Around 170,000 people were deported to Kyrgyzstan from November 1943 to July 1944, among them Karachai (November 1943), Chechens (February 1944), Ingush (February 1944), Balkars (March 1944), Meskhetian Turks (November 1944), Kurds (November 1944), and Hemshins (November 1944).
Our sample did not include the Chechen and Ingush Republics, as well as remote and sparsely populated region of the Far North (Nenets, Yamal-Nenets, Taimyr Autonomous Region, the Evenki Autonomous District, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Sakhalin Oblast).
That same year, for example, Stalin had his troops launch Operation Chechevista, where they expelled the whole Chechen and Ingush population, literally every man, woman and child, from their ancestral lands in the Caucasus.
A North Caucasus Federal District was formed from more restive areas, including the Chechen, Dagestan, Ingush, Kabardino-Balkar, Karachay-Cherkess, and North Ossetia-Alania Republics and the Stavropol Kray.
Between 1940 and 1944, the Chechens and their North Caucasian cousins, the Ingush (together they known as the "Vainakh" people) rebelled against the Kremlin, hoping the Second World War would destroy the Russian/Soviet state.
On September 1-3, 2004, Chechen and Ingush insurgents attacked a school in Beslan, North Ossetia, holding more than 1,100 people hostage.
At the beginning, in 1991-1992, the bloody war between the Muslim Ingush and the Christian Ossetians started.
The destruction and deportations affected, among others, the Ingrian Finns living near Leningrad, the Kalmyks from the Caspian Sea, the Chechens and the Ingush, people living in the Karachay Republic in the Caucasus, Crimean Tatars, and several thousand Greeks, who had settled on the peninsula centuries earlier.
21) The indigenous peoples claim is now advanced for the Oromo in Ethiopia, for Berber, Tuareg, Kurds, Chaldeans, Chechen, Ingush, and for several Afghan, Pakistani, Baluchi, and Bangladeshi tribal peoples, among an expanding list.
Abdurrahman Avtorkhanov, 'The Chechens and Ingush during the Soviet Period and its Antecedents', in Marie Bennigsen Broxup (ed), The North Caucasus Barrier, New York: St Martin's Press, 1992, p184.
In 1944, the Soviets deported the Chechens and Ingush from their native territory and spread them throughout the Soviet Union as "special settlers.
This sad scenario of security issues justifying any level of even gratuitous violence repeated itself during the Great Patriotic War, when hundreds of thousands of Baltic peoples, Poles again, Chechen, Ingush, and Crimean Tatars were forcibly uprooted and either executed or deported to Siberia, Central Asia, or the Far North.