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in biology, natural and synthetic substances that restrain the activity of enzymes in the living organism as well as in acellular systems; they are differentiated according to their mode of action, specificity, and other properties. Metabolic products may function in the body as natural inhibitors of enzymes. By analogy with technology, such inhibition is called feedback inhibition, since the end product of any biosynthetic process specifically inhibits one of its first stages.

Inhibition is effected either at the genetic level (the inhibitor, in this case called a repressor, retards the biosynthesis of one of the enzymes active at the start of the biosynthetic chain) or the kinetic level (the inhibitor, called a retroinhibitor, lowers the activity of that enzyme). Retroinhibition is a frequent case of so-called allosteric control of enzyme activity.

Inhibitors are widely used to study the mechanisms of the catalytic action of enzymes, to establish the nature of functional groups of proteins, and to elucidate the role of various enzyme processes in metabolism. Inhibitors have great practical significance. Thus, the use of toxic chemicals to control harmful insects and weeds is the result of their ability to inhibit processes vitally important to those organisms. The action of certain pharmacological agents and medicines is also based on the inhibition of enzyme reactions. In a broader sense, the term “inhibitors” is used to designate substances that inhibit any complex biological process (for example, growth inhibitors of plants).


Webb, J. L. Ingibitory fermentov i metabolizma. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)


References in periodicals archive ?
But he noted that in time the nucleoside-inhibitor-only approach will lead to rebound -- so it might be necessary to restart the protease inhibitors for some period of time, to take advantage of the fact that the protease inhibitors can reduce the blood level of even resistant virus.
Forty-nine of the men switched to a drug regimen that didn't include protease inhibitors.
The Pan-Bcl-2 Inhibitor GX15-070 Induces Apoptosis in Human Myeloma Cells by Noxa Induction and Strongly Enhances Melphalan, Bortezomib or TRAIL-R1 Antibody Apoptotic Effect" [Gomez-Bougie, et al.
Note: a "boosted" protease inhibitor means that the drug is used in combination with another protease inhibitor--often but not necessarily a small dose of ritonavir, which slows the body's metabolism of many drugs, thereby keeping the blood level of the other protease inhibitor high.
The work on efflux-pump inhibitors remains preliminary.
Inhibition of collagen synthesis with prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor improves left ventricular function and alters the pattern of left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction.
Applications for kinase inhibitors are also discussed separately in the report, with emphasis on the usage of the inhibitors in therapeutic categories and various disease sectors.
This is a very active antiretroviral of the NNRTI class (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor -- the same class as efavirenz, nevirapine, and delavirdine, the three NNRTI drugs currently approved in the U.
Most of the non-tyrosine kinase inhibitors identified during our research target mTOR, CDK, RAF and MEK kinases.
ACE inhibitors target angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).
Biovitrum AB, Sweden, and Swiss-based Santhera Pharmaceuticals AG have signed a license and collaboration agreement that grants Biovitrum the exclusive worldwide rights to Santhera's DPP-IV inhibitor program to select and develop compounds and sell future drugs for a range of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Besides maturation inhibitors for HIV, Panacos is also developing small-molecule fusion inhibitors for HIV and possibly some other viruses.

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