Innis, Roy

Innis, Roy

(Roy Emile Alfredo Innis), 1934–2017, American civil-rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
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 leader, b. St. Croix, Virgin Islands. A member of the Congress of Racial EqualityCongress of Racial Equality
(CORE), civil-rights organization founded (1942) in Chicago by James Farmer. Dedicated to the use of nonviolent direct action, CORE initially sought to promote better race relations and end racial discrimination in the United States.
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 (CORE) from 1963, he was its national director (1968–82) and national chairman (1970–2017). In the late 1960s he traded the integrationist agenda of the civil-rights movement for the ideology of black power and a revived black nationalism. He then turned to the right, supporting Richard NixonNixon, Richard Milhous,
1913–94, 37th President of the United States (1969–74), b. Yorba Linda, Calif. Political Career to 1968

A graduate of Whittier College and Duke law school, he practiced law in Whittier, Calif.
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 and Ronald ReaganReagan, Ronald Wilson
, 1911–2004, 40th president of the United States (1981–89), b. Tampico, Ill. In 1932, after graduation from Eureka College, he became a radio announcer and sportscaster.
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 for president, criticizing the politics of Jesse JacksonJackson, Jesse Louis,
1941–, African-American political leader, clergyman, and civil-rights activist, b. Greenville, S.C. Raised in poverty, he attended the Chicago Theological Seminary (1963–65) and was ordained a Baptist minister in 1968.
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, and opposing affirmative actionaffirmative action,
in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women.
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. He unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for a congressional seat in Brooklyn in 1986 and for New York City mayor in 1993. In 1996–98, Innis led teams that monitored elections in Nigeria.

Innis, (Emile Alfredo) Roy

(1934–  ) civil rights activist; born in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Emigrating to Harlem, New York City (1946), he dropped out of high school to join the army, then worked for a New York City research laboratory (1963–67). He joined the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1963 and advocated black separatism and community school boards; in 1968 he became CORE's national president. Promoting community development corporations, he founded several black business groups and was coeditor of the Manhattan Tribune. Never fully accepted by established African-American civil rights leaders because of his unpredictable positions and personality, he was dogged by charges from associates of being too dictatorial; the New York attorney general's office investigated him for alleged misuse of contributions and he was forced to pay back $35,000 to CORE (1981). In the 1980s he twice ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1988 he made controversial appearances on the Geraldo Rivera and Morton Downey Jr. television shows that led to scuffles on camera.