Innocent IV


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Innocent IV,

d. 1254, pope (1243–54), a Genoese named Sinibaldo Fieschi, a distinguished jurist who studied and later taught law at the Univ. of Bologna; successor of Celestine IV. He was of a noble family. Although he had been regarded as sympathetic to the empire, once pope he quickly took up the papal struggle with Frederick IIFrederick II,
1194–1250, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50), son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI and of Constance, heiress of Sicily.
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 and the HohenstaufenHohenstaufen
, German princely family, whose name is derived from the castle of Staufen built in 1077 by a Swabian count, Frederick. In 1079, Frederick married Agnes, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and was created duke of Swabia.
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. After a futile treaty he felt unsafe in Rome and fled to Lyons, where he convened the Council of Lyons (1245; see Lyons, First Council ofLyons, First Council of
, 1245, 13th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened at Lyons, France, by Pope Innocent IV to deal with his struggle with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
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). Frederick was condemned again and declared deposed, and Innocent supported Henry Raspe and, later, William II of Holland as pretenders to the imperium. He also tried to get an English or French prince to take Sicily as a fief, but Frederick was too strong. Frederick died as the pope was opening a crusade against him (1250). Innocent did not spare the other Hohenstaufen, Conrad IVConrad IV,
1228–54, German king (1237–54), king of Sicily and of Jerusalem (1250–54), son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. He was elected (1237) king of the Romans at his father's instigation after Frederick had deposed Conrad's older brother Henry in
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 and ManfredManfred
, c.1232–1266, king of Sicily (1258–66), the last Hohenstaufen on that throne. An illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Manfred was regent in Sicily for his brother Conrad IV.
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, but after finding them invincible in Sicily, he recognized ConradinConradin
, 1252–68, duke of Swabia, titular king of Jerusalem and Sicily, the last legitimate Hohenstaufen, son of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad IV. While Conradin was still a child in Germany, his uncle Manfred made himself (1258) king of Sicily.
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 as king of Sicily. Innocent was almost wholly occupied with his quarrel with the Hohenstaufen, and the taxes he levied to continue it made him unpopular with clergy and laity alike. He was succeeded by Alexander IV.

Innocent IV

 

(secular name, Sinibaldo Fieschi). Born circa 1195 in Genoa; died Dec. 7, 1254, in Naples. Pope from 1243.

Innocent IV continued the fierce struggle that had flared up during the papacy of Gregory IX against the German emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen. In 1245 he convoked an ecumenical council in Lyon which deposed Frederick II. Innocent supported the Italian cities in their fight for independence from the emperor; he advanced two candidates to replace Frederick II on the German throne— in 1246, Henry Raspe, the landgrave of Thuringia, and in 1247, William II, the Count of Holland [Emperor William of Holland]. After the death of Frederick II (1250), Innocent IV fought against his successor, Conrad IV. He actively supported the Teutonic Order’s piratical policy in Eastern Europe. In 1245 he sent Piano Carpini on a diplomatic mission to the great khan of the Mongols.

Innocent IV

original name Sinibaldo de' Fieschi. died 1254, pope (1243--54); an unrelenting enemy of Emperor Frederick II and his heirs
References in periodicals archive ?
Innocent IV had confirmed Cardinal Hugolino's rule in 1245, but he rewrote a new one two years later.
If we knew nothing else, the tendency would be to associate it with Innocent IV as the papal register does.
Knowing that formal papal approval was the only way her Rule could survive through the ages, Clare pressed Pope Innocent IV until he acquiesed.
In some cases, a person can take the sword to regain stolen property or to defend his homeland without an order of a king or the Church; such is the opinion of Brother Wilhelm from Rennes and Pope Innocent IV.
The legal and pastoral relationships between the male and female followers of Francis of Assisi may have ebbed and flowed (in the 1240s Pope Innocent IV wrote to the Friars Minor and encouraged them to preach to Franciscan sisters, while at the same time the Franciscan author Thomas of Celano would claim that Francis had exhibited very little pastoral care over Franciscan sisters), but one thing that did not change was the deep commitment of Clare and Agnes towards poverty.
Ultimately, Pope Innocent IV would officially approve the Rule of Saint Clare, allowing its adherents to fully realize Clare's privilege of poverty.
So did Pope Innocent IV, who did not want to see another Hohenstaufen on the imperial throne after the death of the Emperor Frederick II in 1250.
Third, there is the fact that even in contracts for sale, it is not permissible to sell for more than it is here or now worth unless the seller was intending to preserve it up to that time, as is found in the chapter Naviganti, Extra, on usury, (4) or was intending to transport it to that place, as Raymundus says, (5) Innocent IV, (6) John Andreae, (7) and John Calderinus.
A key figure in this discussion, on whom many sixteenth- and seventeenth-century moralists relied, is the thirteenth-century canon lawyer Sinibaldo Fieschi, who wrote authoritatively as Pope Innocent IV on relations between the papacy and non-Christian societies.
But in 1244, Pope Innocent IV escaped from Frederick's clutches and took refuge in Lyon in France, from which he launched a fierce ideological ca mpaign against the emperor.
In 1252, instead of recognizing the danger signals, Pope Innocent IV felt he had to back the process involving both state and Church even further and so he allowed the use of torture (Bull Ad extirpanda).
With the Inquisition promoted by the Catholic church in the twelfth century came many of the horrors of interrogation, torture, forced confession, extorted conversion, and extermination that have plagued the world ever since Pope Innocent IV.