Integrated Automatic Communications System
Integrated Automatic Communications System
a unified network of communications lines, nodes, and stations set up throughout the entire USSR for the transmission of all types of information to users. The creation of an integrated automatic communications system is required, on the one hand, to handle the enormous and ever-increasing flow of information needed by the state bodies directing the economy, industrial enterprises, sovkhozes,>and kolkhozes and by the public organizations satisfying the everyday and cultural needs of the population; on the other hand, the creation of such a system is also necessitated by the widespread introduction into the economy of computer technology, which means transmission of a large volume of digital information by communication channels either as a source for computer calculations or as output. The system is used for transmission of various types of information in such forms as telephone and telegraph transmissions; digital information for computers; phototelegraphic transmissions of drafts, diagrams, phototelegrams, and newspapers; telemetric signals and remote-control command signals between units of auto-mated complexes; and radio broadcasts and television programs. The system allows for a videotelephone network. In order to transmit the entire flow of information in a timely fashion, it will be necessary not only to broaden the network of existing cable, radio-relay, and other communications lines (which is a significant undertaking in itself) but to make an important qualitative step forward by joining all communications resources into an integrated, automatically operating system.
The integrated automatic communications system includes area and trunk networks of line communications, as well as an enormous technological complex used to transform, transmit, and receive electrical information signals (transmission and reception equipment); to direct information by various communications channels for the distribution of this information according to its address (commutation equipment); and to switch on back-up communications channels for transmission of information if operating communications lines are damaged (control equipment). Area (urban, rural, and intraoblast) and trunk line communications networks include conductor (cables and overhead wires), radio-relay, and space communications lines. The basic unit in the integrated automatic communications system is the intercity trunk line network, linking communications stations and nodes. Primary and secondary consolidation of communications lines is used for simultaneous transmission of large amounts of information by trunk lines and other means. New communications lines are being developed that are capable of handling heavy traffic through use of radio waveguides and laser beams.
Automation of operational control of integrated automatic communications by means of computers has been proposed. Continually receiving information about densities of information flows, about the degree of importance and urgency of the information, and about the technical condition and loads of individual communications lines and channels, computers will select optimal means of transmission along channels of various communicators and, if necessary, will hold information for a certain amount of time for subsequent transmission along opened communications channels. Automation of processes of technical maintenance foresees the use of equipment with a high degree of operational dependability for the creation of unmanned stations, nodes, and booster points, as well as for the implementation of long-range control and supervision of their operation. Accounting and processing of documentation for billing subscribers will be automated at terminal intercity telephone stations and telegraph subscriber stations. Documentation from these stations will arrive at central machine-calculating stations for processing. An integrated automatic communications system will make it possible to conduct telephone conversations domestically over any distances between any subscribers by simply dialing the numbers. For this purpose the territory of the country is divided into areas embracing all cities and villages. Subscribers of each zone will have an outlet to their area’s communications nodes and intercity stations. For communication with any subscriber inside a given area, seven numbers, as a rule, must be dialed. To be connected with a subscriber of another area, 11 numbers must be dialed: one to enter the intercity network, three for the number of the corresponding area, and seven for the number of the subscriber. For telegraph trans-missions in the integrated system, subscriber telegraphing and automatic direct couplings for establishing direct contact between subscribers, as well as between city and raion communications departments and nodes of various areas, will be further developed. Such contact will be implemented by dialing six numbers on the dial of a calling device mounted by the telegraph. The first three digits determine the number of the station being called; the next three determine the number of either the subscriber, the city department, or the raion communications node.
REFERENCEPsurtsev, N. D. Sviaz’ na sluzhbe stroitel stva kommunizma. Moscow, 1970.
V. V. NOVIKOV