Intellect


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intellect

the capacity for understanding, thinking, and reasoning, as distinct from feeling or wishing

Intellect

 

the capacity for thought and rational cognition, in contrast to, for example, such mental capabilities as feelings, will, intuition, and imagination.

The term “intellect” is derived from the Latin translation of the ancient Greek concept nous (mind), and its meaning is identical. In their theories Plato and Aristotle treated nous as the higher, supraindividual, rational part of the human soul; the “mind” as the first stage in emanation of the world, its flow from the single prime source, is a development of Neoplatonism. This meaning of the term was also adopted by medieval Scholasticism (intellect as divine intellect). In contrast to “reason” as the lower cognitive capacity (for elementary abstraction), the term “intellect” was used in Scholasticism to signify a higher cognitive capacity (suprasensory grasping of spiritual essences). These concepts were employed by Kant in an opposite sense: understanding, or intellect (in German, Verstand), as the ability to form concepts, and reason (in German, Vernunft) as the ability to form metaphysical ideas. This word usage became widespread in subsequent German philosophy and was definitively established by Hegel with his concepts of understanding (intellect) and reason. The former as a capacity for abstract-analytical differentiation is a preliminary condition for higher, rational, concrete-dialectical comprehension.

Since the end of the 19th century diverse quantitative methods for evaluating intellect, the level of mental development, by means of special tests and specific systems for statistical processing of these tests in factor analysis have become widespread in experimental psychology.

In animal psychology certain reactions of which higher animals, for the most part monkeys, are capable are regarded as intellect (or “manual thought”). Such reactions are characterized by sudden solutions of problems, easy reproduction of solutions once they have been discovered, their transfer to situations somewhat different from original ones, and, finally, a capacity to solve “two-phase” tasks.

In Soviet psychology the concept of intellect is used mainly in theory of individual-typological features of personality development (see B. M. Teplov, Problemy individual’nykh razlichii, Moscow, 1961, pp. 252–344). On a more general level intellect is a synonym for thought, the mental development of the individual.

IU. N. POPOV

INTELLECT

(language)
A query language written by Larry Harris in 1977, close to natural English.

Intellect

A natural language query program for IBM mainframes developed by Artificial Intelligence Corporation. The company was later acquired by Trinzic Corporation, which was acquired by Platinum, which was acquired by Computer Associates.
References in classic literature ?
After my fellowship of toil and impracticable schemes with the dreamy brethren of Brook Farm; after living for three years within the subtle influence of an intellect like Emerson's; after those wild, free days on the Assabeth, indulging fantastic speculations, beside our fire of fallen boughs, with Ellery Channing; after talking with Thoreau about pine-trees and Indian relics in his hermitage at Walden; after growing fastidious by sympathy with the classic refinement of Hillard's culture; after becoming imbued with poetic sentiment at Longfellow's hearthstone -- it was time, at length, that I should exercise other faculties of my nature, and nourish myself with food for which I had hitherto had little appetite.
And so," said Grandfather, "his life, while he retained what intellect Heaven had gifted him with, was one long mortification.
Then came Eulalie, the proud beauty, the Juno of the school, whom six long years of drilling in the simple grammar of the English language had compelled, despite the stiff phlegm of her intellect, to acquire a mechanical acquaintance with most of its rules.
Other modes of intellect bring together as strange companies.
This insight, which expresses itself by what is called Imagination, is a very high sort of seeing, which does not come by study, but by the intellect being where and what it sees; by sharing the path or circuit of things through forms, and so making them translucid to others.
The doubt is flattering," said "the man of profound intellect," with a subtle smile.
Moreover, while a writer who deals with [48] easy themes has no excuse if he is not pellucid to a glance, one who employs his intellect and imagination on high and hard questions has a right to demand a corresponding closeness of attention, and a right to say with Bishop Butler, in answer to a similar complaint: 'It must be acknowledged that some of the following discourses are very abstruse and difficult, or, if you please, obscure; but I must take leave to add that those alone are judges whether or no, and how far this is a fault, who are judges whether or no, and how far it might have been avoided--those only who will be at the trouble to understand what is here said, and to see how far the things here insisted upon, and not other things, might have been put in a plainer manner.
And he read of salons in great cities, even in the United States, where art and intellect congregated.
Very well," said the Witch, "I will give you work in which you will be associated with intellect - you will come in contact with brains.
Largely a matter of Emotion is the Personal Sympathy of the author for his characters, while Intellect has a large share in Dramatic Sympathy, whereby the author enters truly into the situations and feelings of any character, whether he personally likes him or not.
The orator yields to the inspiration of a transient occasion, and speaks to the mob before him, to those who can hear him; but the writer, whose more equable life is his occasion, and who would be distracted by the event and the crowd which inspire the orator, speaks to the intellect and health of mankind, to all in any age who can understand him.
This is that strain which is of the intellect only, but which the faculty of sight will nevertheless be found to imitate; for sight, as you may remember, was imagined by us after a while to behold the real animals and stars, and last of all the sun himself.