intelligence quotient

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intelligence quotient

a measure of the intelligence of an individual derived from results obtained from specially designed tests. The quotient is traditionally derived by dividing an individual's mental age by his chronological age and multiplying the result by 100

intelligence quotient (IQ)

a unit used in the field of INTELLIGENCE measurement and testing as an index of an individual's intelligence relative to a comparable population with respect to age. A ratio IQ is the IQ expressed as a ratio of mental age (as measured by a test) to chronological age, and multiplied by 100 to avoid decimals:

The average child at any one chronological age will therefore score 100 on the appropriate set of IQ test items. This was the original IQ measure first used in 1916 in the Stanford-Binet Test.

Modern tests make use of standard scores, which express the individual's distance from the mean in terms of the standard deviation, and assume a normal distribution. In a variant of this, the deviation IQ, the mean is 100 and a standard deviation of 15 or 16 is usual.

It is important to note the difference between these measures, since the deviation IQ is not a ratio of mental age to chronological age, and the measured IQs derived from it will depend on the standard deviation used in the test. see also INTELLIGENCE TEST.

intelligence quotient

[in′tel·ə·jəns ‚kwōsh·ənt]
(psychology)
The numerical designation for intelligence expressed as a ratio of an individual's performance on a standardized test to the average performance according to age. Abbreviated IQ.
References in periodicals archive ?
Canter believes that there is a push for norm-referenced intelligence testing (Canter, 1997) Elliot also believes that schools should look to alternatives in assessing students for special education.
Although many people have contributed to the conception of intelligence as a unitary, qualitatively unique trait, we may trace its origin in the history of the intelligence testing movement to the British psychologist and statistician Charles Spearman.
The examiner was a Caucasian male with considerable experience in intelligence testing.
As a leader in animal welfare issues, the Detroit Zoo has engaged in a research project which investigates elephant response to intelligence testing.
Scholars in education discuss topics that include: nonverbal test scores as a component of an identification system, the relationship of traditional IQ to minority representation in gifted programs, off-level testing and assessment, intelligence testing and cultural diversity, the identification of low-income and minority students for gifted programs through performance-based assessment, use of a psychological theory of giftedness to improve the identification of gifted children, nontraditional applications of traditional testing, and portfolio assessment of gifted students, among others.
Among his topics are the origins of the eugenics movement, eugenics and the intellectuals, intelligence testing challenged, and the durability of eugenic theories.
Specific topics include: a brief history of intelligence testing, self-advocacy, Americans with Disabilities Act, Fragile X Syndrome, family stress and autism, and bilingual special education.
Among the topics explored in the various historical case studies are bureaucracy and curricular differentiation, teacher unionism and public school finance, intelligence testing, the treatment of "special children," the origins of Chicano educational protest in the 1960s, and recent voucher experiments.

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