intelligent design

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intelligent design,

theory that some complex biological structures and other aspects of nature show evidence of having been designed by an intelligence. Such biological structures are said to have intricate components that are so highly interdependent and so essential to a particular function or process that the structures could not have developed through Darwinian evolutionevolution,
concept that embodies the belief that existing animals and plants developed by a process of gradual, continuous change from previously existing forms. This theory, also known as descent with modification, constitutes organic evolution.
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, and therefore must have been created or somehow guided in their development. Although intelligent design is distinguished from creationismcreationism
or creation science,
belief in the biblical account of the creation of the world as described in Genesis, a characteristic especially of fundamentalist Protestantism (see fundamentalism). Advocates of creationism have campaigned to have it taught in U.S.
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 by not relying on the biblical account of creation, it is compatible with a belief in God and is often explicitly linked with such a belief. Also, unlike creationists, its proponents do not challenge the idea that the earth is billions of years old and that life on earth has evolved to some degree. The theory does, however, necessarily reject standard science's reliance on explaining the natural world only through undirected natural causes, believing that any theory that relies on such causes alone is incapable of explaining how all biological structures and processes arose. Thus, despite claims by members of the intelligent-design movement that it is a scientific research program, the work of its adherents has been criticized as unscientific and speculative for inferring a pre-existing intelligence to explain the development of biological structures instead of attempting to develop adequate falsifiable mechanistic explanations. In addition, the theory has been attacked on the grounds that many aspects of nature fail to show any evidence of intelligent design, such as "junk" DNA (see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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) and the vestigial webbed feet of the frigate bird (which never lands on water).

The idea that nature shows signs of having been designed by an intelligent being dates back at least to ancient Greece. The English theologian William PaleyPaley, William,
1743–1805, English theologian. Ordained in 1767, he lectured on moral philosophy at Christ's College, Cambridge. Made a prebendary of the cathedral church of Carlisle (1780), he became archdeacon of the diocese (1782), and chancellor (1785), the year he
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 gave the theory its classic formulation in his Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity (1802), in which he argued that the eye and other biological features are perfectly suited for their purposes and that in this suitable design the hand of God can be discerned. The modern intelligent-design movement, however, has its origins in the 1980s with such works as The Mystery of Life's Origins (1984) by Charles Thaxton et al. and Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1986) by Michael Denton. Micheal Behe's Darwin's Black Box (1996) is perhaps the best-known statement of the movement's critique of Darwin and its argument for a role for God or some other intelligence in the design of biological entities. Advocates of intelligent design have campaigned to have it taught in U.S. public schools alongside the Darwinian theory of evolution. A requirement by the Dover, Pa., area school board that students be told that intelligent design represents an alternative explanation for the origin of life was challenged in federal court in 2005 and ruled unconstitutional.


See R. T. Pennock, ed., Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics (2002).

References in periodicals archive ?
The above was found at the following website where you may read the scientific explanation in an article, 'Primer: Intelligent Design Theory in a Nutshell': http://www.
The author knows full well that intelligent design theory is bad science and bad theology.
Prior to the legal challenge in Dover Pennsylvania, religious fundamentalist were attempting to incorporate the pseudoscientific concept of Intelligent Design Theory into public school science classes at the local level hoping to circumvent Constitutional restrictions.
Neuhaus's own overreaching--in his support for the war in Iraq, the cogency of Intelligent Design theory, and Congress's intervention in the Terri Schiavo case--has also weakened his position.
The international press reacted with suspicion; at a conference last year, Coyne had blasted trendy intelligent design theory as "devoid of all scientific basis" and clashed with the influential anti-Darwinist Cardinal Christoph Schonborn.
Bloomberg said he was angered to see fundamentalists trying to turn back the clock on teaching evolution in schools--and denounced the intelligent design theory as 'creationism by another name.
Abstract: The recent rise of intelligent design theory in opposition to the Neo-Darwinian synthesis as an account for the nature of life reflects an underlying shift in the defining ideological polarity of our time.
The curriculum package further identifies the beliefs or viewpoints as anything commonly characterized as creationism, theory of divine creation, intelligent design theory or other theories based on religious beliefs.
Author David Stove is a philosopher who maintains that Darwin's theory of evolution is a 'slander on human beings': despite his beliefs, he's not a creationist nor an advocate of the intelligent design theory, but a theological skeptic--so he operates outside of most scientific and philosophical circles based in either.
Intelligent design theory has evolved in recent years a modified version of creationism.
Mr Coyne said placing intelligent design theory alongside that of evolution in school programs was "wrong" and was akin to mixing apples with oranges.

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