intendant

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intendant

(ĭntĕn`dənt), French administrative official who served as the chief royal representative in the provinces under the ancien régime. The intendants first gained importance under Cardinal Richelieu, Louis XIII's principal minister, in the early 17th cent.; he used them extensively to consolidate the country and undermine feudal authority. At first the intendant lacked power outside his specific commission from the king. Under Louis XIV's rule (1643–1715), however, the intendant became a vital permanent state official, appointed by the king. Granted full powers in the fields of justice, finance, and police in the provinces, the intendant often tried civil and criminal cases, suspended unsuitable judges, summoned special tribunals, regulated municipal government, stamped out banditry and smuggling, levied and collected taxes, and drew the militia by lot. Initially, intendants were non-nobles, dependent upon royal favor for advancement. As faithful instruments of royal centralization they aroused the hostility of the local authorities, notably the parlements and the provincial governors. During the abortive revolution known as the Fronde (1648–53) the office was virtually abolished, but it was reinstated in 1653 after the rebellion had been crushed. Distributed throughout the realm, each généralité had one intendant by 1689. In the 18th cent. all intendants were from the nobility; at the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789) there were 33 in France. The authority of the intendants was severely shaken in the provincial revolts of 1788. A symbol of royal absolutism, the office was abolished (Dec., 1789) by the Constituent Assembly early in the French Revolution.

Bibliography

See study by V. Gruder (1968).

References in periodicals archive ?
Intendents obtained lower averages in transformational leadership behaviors than leaders in other ranks, except from the comparison between intendent leaders and constable leaders, which only showed significant differences in idealized influence-behavior and individualized consideration.
The native population had pushed for Newball to be appointed the first Intendent but instead they got Gonzalo Perez, a mainlander.
CAB boss Detective Chief Super- intendent Felix McKenna said the Bureau expects to get the go-ahead to hand the property over to the Government early this year.
North Wales Police Detective Super- intendent Chris Corcoran appealed for witnesses to call on 01978 294590.
Neither the La Scala intendent (similar to an executive director in the U.
intendent or designee; also, helicopters are forbidden to fly over facilities at less than 500 feet.
The Vienna intendent recommended Bennett to the Israeli Opera, and the conductor's love affair with the Kiev orchestra began when the Staatsoper toured a production to the Ukraine.
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Thus Frobisher the seventeenth-century Arctic explorer, jean Talon the intendent who tried to diversify the economy of New France, William Hamilton Merritt and the canal builders, the transcontinental railroad promoters, industrialists seeking tariff protection, dirigist cabinet ministers like C.
In his first year as super intendent, Balderas was paid $185,000, which the board increased to $196,775 for the 2016-17 school year.
Norfolk Police Detective Super intendent Paul Durham said: "I can confirm we are treating this as an attempted abduction and detailed inquiries are being car ried out at the scene to establish the full circumstances.